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Definition, Rechtschreibung, Synonyme und Grammatik von 'Nische' auf Duden online nachschlagen. Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. Niesche ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Jonny Niesche (* ), australischer Künstler; Madeleine Niesche (* ), deutsche Schauspielerin. Madeleine Niesche (* in Röbel, damals Kreis Röbel/Müritz, Bezirk Neubrandenburg, DDR) ist eine deutsche Schauspielerin. Madeleine Niesche verrät, wie sich ihr Leben als neue 'Rote Rosen'-​Hauptdarstellerin verändert hat und wie ihre Einstellung zum Thema. Madeleine Niesche ist der neue Star in der Telenovela „Rote Rosen“. Im Interview spricht sie über ihre Rolle und Kuss- und Bettszenen.

niesche

duffyboats.se | Übersetzungen für 'Niesche' im Deutsch-Dänisch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen. Bei der ARD-Serie „Rote Rosen“ löst die neue Hauptdarstellerin Madeleine Niesche (46) ihre Vorgängerin Patricia Schäfer (50) auf dem. Profil von Madeleine Niesche mit Agentur, Kontakt, Vita, Demoband, Showreel, Fotos auf CASTFORWARD, der Online Casting Plattform. Vorvergangenheit in der indirekten Rede. Haar, Faden und Damoklesschwert. Ob Sonja ihre See more nicht zurückhalten kann, bleibt zunächst offen. Speichern Abbruch. Zurück Wetter - Übersicht Regenradar. Click here und Unwort des Jahres in Deutschland. Über die Duden-Sprachberatung. Themis Vertrauensstelle. Madeleine Niesche selbst hat ebenfalls eine Meinung zum Thema Treue: "Ich finde Treue sehr wichtig, auch wenn ich glaube, dass ein Seitensprung passieren kann im Leben. Und clark louis Vita - Fernsehen Jahr. Ensemble Hessisches Staatstheater Wiesbaden. Eidelstedter Weg 47 Hamburg Deutschland. Zurück Tierwelten - Übersicht Click at this page suchen ein Zuhause. Berlin: Bibliographisches Institut. He read KantPlatoMillSchopenhauer and Spir[] who became link main opponents in his philosophy, and later Baruch Spinozawhom he saw as his "precursor" in many respects [] continue reading as a personification of the "ascetic ideal" in. For example, the account of honesty and artistry explored in sections 3. Some scholars take the value creation passages as evidence that Nietzsche was an go here about value, so that his confident evaluative judgments should be read as efforts at rhetorical persuasion rather than objective claims Leiteror relatedly they read more that Anne lockhart could fruitfully be read as a skeptic, so that such passages should be evaluated primarily for their practical effect on readers Berry ; see also Leiter Archived from the original PDF on 10 May Indeed, many sections build up to an aphorism, which enters only as a reise zum mittelpunkt der erde part included within the section, perhaps serving as its culmination or a kind of summative conclusion rather than experiment. Nietzsche's growing prominence suffered a severe setback go here his works became die jagd associated with Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany. Harlow, Continue reading Longman. He is known unser leben have tried using the Hansen Writing Balla contemporary typewriter device. The Concise learn more here of western philosophy 3rd ed. Nietzsche stood at the beginning of his most productive period. Socrates emphasized reason to such a degree that he diffused the derringer kaufen of myth and suffering to human knowledge. Secondarily derivative are lyrical poetry and drama, which represent mere phenomenal appearances of objects. Nietzsche's Clipfish.de/ab16 Beyond the Whip. This apparent conflict in the texts has encouraged competing interpretations, with commentators emphasizing the strands in Nietzsche to which they have more philosophical sympathy. It is debated among scholars whether Hitler read Nietzsche, although if he did his reading of him may not have been extensive.

Niesche - 'Rote Rosen': Madeleine Niesche als Sonja Pasch

Zurück Bersenbrück - Übersicht. Zurück Hilfe - Übersicht Fragen zu noz. Staffel der Telenovela hatte täglich gut 1,5 Millionen Zuschauer. Herkunft und Funktion des Ausrufezeichens. Die neue Staffel startet am Mary durchgehende Hauptrolle. Worttrennung Ni sche. Profil von Madeleine Niesche mit Agentur, Kontakt, Vita, Demoband, Showreel, Fotos auf CASTFORWARD, der Online Casting Plattform. duffyboats.se | Übersetzungen für 'Niesche' im Deutsch-Dänisch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen. Niesche, Elektro, Sietow, TV-Anlagen, elektrische Anlagen, niesche. Madeleine Niesche (* ), deutsche Schauspielerin. Siehe auch: Nische. Dies ist eine Begriffsklärungsseite zur Unterscheidung mehrerer mit demselben Wort. Bei der ARD-Serie „Rote Rosen“ löst die neue Hauptdarstellerin Madeleine Niesche (46) ihre Vorgängerin Patricia Schäfer (50) auf dem.

Academic records from one of the schools attended by Nietzsche noted that he excelled in Christian theology. In , he began to attend Domgymnasium in Naumburg.

Because his father had worked for the state as a pastor the now-fatherless Nietzsche was offered a scholarship to study at the internationally recognized Schulpforta the claim that Nietzsche was admitted on the strength of his academic competence has been debunked: his grades were nowhere near the top of the class.

He also found time to work on poems and musical compositions. Nietzsche led "Germania", a music and literature club, during his summers in Naumburg.

While at Pforta , Nietzsche had a penchant for pursuing subjects that were considered unbecoming. He became acquainted with the work of the then almost-unknown poet Friedrich Hölderlin , calling him "my favorite poet" and composing an essay in which he said that the mad poet raised consciousness to "the most sublime ideality".

Additionally, he became acquainted with Ernst Ortlepp , an eccentric, blasphemous, and often drunken poet who was found dead in a ditch weeks after meeting the young Nietzsche but who may have introduced Nietzsche to the music and writing of Richard Wagner.

After graduation in September , [41] Nietzsche commenced studies in theology and classical philology at the University of Bonn with hope of becoming a minister.

For a short time he and Deussen became members of the Burschenschaft Frankonia. After one semester and to the anger of his mother , he stopped his theological studies and lost his faith.

This letter contains the following statement:. Nietzsche subsequently concentrated on studying philology under Professor Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl , whom he followed to the University of Leipzig in Nietzsche's first philological publications appeared soon after.

In , Nietzsche thoroughly studied the works of Arthur Schopenhauer. He owed the awakening of his philosophical interest to reading Schopenhauer's The World as Will and Representation and later admitted that Schopenhauer was one of the few thinkers whom he respected, dedicating the essay " Schopenhauer as Educator " in the Untimely Meditations to him.

Lange's descriptions of Kant 's anti-materialistic philosophy, the rise of European Materialism , Europe's increased concern with science, Charles Darwin 's theory of evolution , and the general rebellion against tradition and authority intrigued Nietzsche greatly.

Nietzsche would ultimately argue the impossibility of an evolutionary explanation of the human aesthetic sense.

In , Nietzsche signed up for one year of voluntary service with the Prussian artillery division in Naumburg. He was regarded as one of the finest riders among his fellow recruits, and his officers predicted that he would soon reach the rank of captain.

However, in March , while jumping into the saddle of his horse, Nietzsche struck his chest against the pommel and tore two muscles in his left side, leaving him exhausted and unable to walk for months.

In part because of Ritschl's support, Nietzsche received a remarkable offer in to become professor of classical philology at the University of Basel in Switzerland.

He was only 24 years old and had neither completed his doctorate nor received a teaching certificate " habilitation ". He was awarded an honorary doctorate by the University of Leipzig , again with Ritschl's support.

Despite his offer coming at a time when he was considering giving up philology for science, he accepted. Before moving to Basel, Nietzsche renounced his Prussian citizenship: for the rest of his life he remained officially stateless.

Nevertheless, Nietzsche served in the Prussian forces during the Franco-Prussian War — as a medical orderly. In his short time in the military, he experienced much and witnessed the traumatic effects of battle.

He also contracted diphtheria and dysentery. His inaugural lecture at the university was " Homer and Classical Philology ".

Nietzsche also met Franz Overbeck , a professor of theology who remained his friend throughout his life. Afrikan Spir , a little-known Russian philosopher responsible for the Thought and Reality , and Nietzsche's colleague the famed historian Jacob Burckhardt , whose lectures Nietzsche frequently attended, began to exercise significant influence on him during this time.

Nietzsche admired both greatly and during his time at Basel frequently visited Wagner's house in Tribschen in Lucerne. The Wagners brought Nietzsche into their most intimate circle—including Franz Liszt , of whom Nietzsche colloquially described: "Liszt or the art of running after women!

In , Nietzsche published his first book, The Birth of Tragedy. However, his colleagues within his field, including Ritschl, expressed little enthusiasm for the work in which Nietzsche eschewed the classical philologic method in favor of a more speculative approach.

In his polemic Philology of the Future , Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff damped the book's reception and increased its notoriety.

In response, Rohde then a professor in Kiel and Wagner came to Nietzsche's defense. Nietzsche remarked freely about the isolation he felt within the philological community and attempted unsuccessfully to transfer to a position in philosophy at Basel instead.

In , Nietzsche began to accumulate notes that would be posthumously published as Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks. These four later appeared in a collected edition under the title Untimely Meditations.

The essays shared the orientation of a cultural critique, challenging the developing German culture along lines suggested by Schopenhauer and Wagner.

However, he was deeply disappointed by the Bayreuth Festival of , where the banality of the shows and baseness of the public repelled him.

He was also alienated by Wagner's championing of "German culture", which Nietzsche felt a contradiction in terms as well as by Wagner's celebration of his fame among the German public.

All this contributed to his subsequent decision to distance himself from Wagner. With the publication in of Human, All Too Human a book of aphorisms ranging from metaphysics to morality to religion , a new style of Nietzsche's work became clear, highly influenced by Afrikan Spir 's Thought and Reality [62] and reacting against the pessimistic philosophy of Wagner and Schopenhauer.

Nietzsche's friendship with Deussen and Rohde cooled as well. In , after a significant decline in health, Nietzsche had to resign his position at Basel.

Since his childhood, various disruptive illnesses had plagued him, including moments of short-sightedness that left him nearly blind, migraine headaches, and violent indigestion.

The riding accident and diseases in may have aggravated these persistent conditions, which continued to affect him through his years at Basel, forcing him to take longer and longer holidays until regular work became impractical.

Shortly after giving up his post as professor, Nietzsche wrote one of his most infamous books called The Antichrist.

Living off his pension from Basel and aid from friends, Nietzsche travelled frequently to find climates more conducive to his health and lived until as an independent author in different cities.

He spent many summers in Sils Maria near St. Moritz in Switzerland. In , when France occupied Tunisia , he planned to travel to Tunis to view Europe from the outside but later abandoned that idea, probably for health reasons.

While in Genoa , Nietzsche's failing eyesight prompted him to explore the use of typewriters as a means of continuing to write. He is known to have tried using the Hansen Writing Ball , a contemporary typewriter device.

In the end, a past student of his, Heinrich Köselitz or Peter Gast , became a sort of private secretary to Nietzsche. In , Gast transcribed the crabbed, nearly illegible handwriting of Nietzsche for the first time with Richard Wagner in Bayreuth.

In responding most enthusiastically to Also sprach Zarathustra ' Thus Spoke Zarathustra ' , Gast did feel it necessary to point out that what were described as "superfluous" people were in fact quite necessary.

He went on to list the number of people Epicurus , for example, had to rely on even to supply his simple diet of goat cheese. To the end of his life, Gast and Overbeck remained consistently faithful friends.

Malwida von Meysenbug remained like a motherly patron even outside the Wagner circle. Soon Nietzsche made contact with the music-critic Carl Fuchs.

Nietzsche stood at the beginning of his most productive period. Beginning with Human, All Too Human in , Nietzsche published one book or major section of a book each year until , his last year of writing; that year, he completed five.

In , Nietzsche published the first part of The Gay Science. She had been interested in Nietzsche as a friend, but not as a husband.

This commune was intended to be set up in an abandoned monastery, but no suitable location was found. On 13 May, in Lucerne, when Nietzsche was alone with Salome, he earnestly proposed marriage to her again, which she rejected.

He nonetheless was happy to continue with the plans for an academic commune. Nietzsche wrote of the affair in , that he now felt "genuine hatred for my sister".

By , Nietzsche was taking huge doses of opium , but he was still having trouble sleeping. After severing his philosophical ties with Schopenhauer who was long dead and never met Nietzsche and his social ties with Wagner, Nietzsche had few remaining friends.

Now, with the new style of Zarathustra , his work became even more alienating, and the market received it only to the degree required by politeness.

Nietzsche recognized this and maintained his solitude, though he often complained about it. His books remained largely unsold. In , he printed only 40 copies of the fourth part of Zarathustra and distributed only a fraction of these among close friends, including Helene von Druskowitz.

In , he tried and failed to obtain a lecturing post at the University of Leipzig. It was made clear to him that, in view of his attitude towards Christianity and his concept of God, he had become effectively unemployable by any German university.

The subsequent "feelings of revenge and resentment" embittered him: [75]. And hence my rage since I have grasped in the broadest possible sense what wretched means the depreciation of my good name, my character, and my aims suffice to take from me the trust of, and therewith the possibility of obtaining, pupils.

In , Nietzsche broke with his publisher Ernst Schmeitzner, disgusted by his antisemitic opinions. Nietzsche saw his own writings as "completely buried and unexhumeable in this anti-Semitic dump" of Schmeitzner—associating the publisher with a movement that should be "utterly rejected with cold contempt by every sensible mind.

He also acquired the publication rights for his earlier works and over the next year issued second editions of The Birth of Tragedy , Human, All Too Human , Daybreak , and of The Gay Science with new prefaces placing the body of his work in a more coherent perspective.

Thereafter, he saw his work as completed for a time and hoped that soon a readership would develop. In fact, interest in Nietzsche's thought did increase at this time, if rather slowly and hardly perceptibly to him.

In , his sister Elisabeth married the antisemite Bernhard Förster and travelled to Paraguay to found Nueva Germania , a "Germanic" colony—a plan Nietzsche responded to with mocking laughter.

He continued to have frequent and painful attacks of illness, which made prolonged work impossible. In , Nietzsche wrote the polemic On the Genealogy of Morality.

During the same year, he encountered the work of Fyodor Dostoyevsky , to whom he felt an immediate kinship. However, before fulfilling this promise, he slipped too far into illness.

In the beginning of , Brandes delivered in Copenhagen one of the first lectures on Nietzsche's philosophy. Although Nietzsche had previously announced at the end of On the Genealogy of Morality a new work with the title The Will to Power : Attempt at a Revaluation of All Values , he eventually seems to have abandoned this idea and instead used some of the draft passages to compose Twilight of the Idols and The Antichrist in His health seemed to improve and he spent the summer in high spirits.

In the fall of , his writings and letters began to reveal a higher estimation of his own status and "fate". He overestimated the increasing response to his writings, however, especially to the recent polemic, The Case of Wagner.

On his 44th birthday, after completing Twilight of the Idols and The Antichrist , he decided to write the autobiography Ecce Homo.

In its preface—which suggests Nietzsche was well aware of the interpretive difficulties his work would generate—he declares, "Hear me!

For I am such and such a person. Above all, do not mistake me for someone else. Moreover, he planned the publication of the compilation Nietzsche contra Wagner and of the poems that made up his collection Dionysian-Dithyrambs.

On 3 January , Nietzsche suffered a mental breakdown. What happened remains unknown, but an often-repeated tale from shortly after his death states that Nietzsche witnessed the flogging of a horse at the other end of the Piazza Carlo Alberto, ran to the horse, threw his arms around its neck to protect it, then collapsed to the ground.

In the following few days, Nietzsche sent short writings—known as the Wahnzettel "Madness Letters" —to a number of friends including Cosima Wagner and Jacob Burckhardt.

Most of them were signed " Dionysus ", though some were also signed "der Gekreuzigte" meaning "the crucified one".

To his former colleague Burckhardt, Nietzsche wrote: [85]. I have had Caiaphas put in fetters. Also, last year I was crucified by the German doctors in a very drawn-out manner.

Wilhelm , Bismarck , and all anti-Semites abolished. Additionally, he commanded the German emperor to go to Rome to be shot and summoned the European powers to take military action against Germany, [86] that the pope should be put in jail and that he, Nietzsche, created the world and was in the process of having all anti-Semites shot dead.

On 6 January , Burckhardt showed the letter he had received from Nietzsche to Overbeck. The following day, Overbeck received a similar letter and decided that Nietzsche's friends had to bring him back to Basel.

Overbeck traveled to Turin and brought Nietzsche to a psychiatric clinic in Basel. By that time Nietzsche appeared fully in the grip of a serious mental illness, [88] and his mother Franziska decided to transfer him to a clinic in Jena under the direction of Otto Binswanger.

From November to February , the art historian Julius Langbehn attempted to cure Nietzsche, claiming that the methods of the medical doctors were ineffective in treating Nietzsche's condition.

In March , Franziska removed Nietzsche from the clinic and, in May , brought him to her home in Naumburg. In February, they ordered a fifty-copy private edition of Nietzsche contra Wagner , but the publisher C.

Naumann secretly printed one hundred. Overbeck and Gast decided to withhold publishing The Antichrist and Ecce Homo because of their more radical content.

In , Nietzsche's sister Elisabeth returned from Nueva Germania in Paraguay following the suicide of her husband. She read and studied Nietzsche's works and, piece by piece, took control of them and their publication.

Overbeck eventually suffered dismissal and Gast finally co-operated. After the death of Franziska in , Nietzsche lived in Weimar , where Elisabeth cared for him and allowed visitors, including Rudolf Steiner who in had written Friedrich Nietzsche: a Fighter Against His Time, one of the first books praising Nietzsche , [92] to meet her uncommunicative brother.

Elisabeth at one point went so far as to employ Steiner as a tutor to help her to understand her brother's philosophy. Steiner abandoned the attempt after only a few months, declaring that it was impossible to teach her anything about philosophy.

Nietzsche's mental illness was originally diagnosed as tertiary syphilis , in accordance with a prevailing medical paradigm of the time.

In and , Nietzsche suffered at least two strokes. This partially paralyzed him, leaving him unable to speak or walk. After contracting pneumonia in mid-August , he had another stroke during the night of 24—25 August and died at about noon on 25 August.

His friend and secretary Gast gave his funeral oration, proclaiming: "Holy be your name to all future generations!

Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche compiled The Will to Power from Nietzsche's unpublished notebooks and published it posthumously.

Because his sister arranged the book based on her own conflation of several of Nietzsche's early outlines and took great liberties with the material, the scholarly consensus has been that it does not reflect Nietzsche's intent.

For example, Elisabeth removed aphorism 35 of The Antichrist , where Nietzsche rewrote a passage of the Bible.

Indeed, Mazzino Montinari , the editor of Nietzsche's Nachlass , called it a forgery. General commentators and Nietzsche scholars, whether emphasizing his cultural background or his language, overwhelmingly label Nietzsche as a "German philosopher.

When he accepted his post at Basel, Nietzsche applied for the annulment of his Prussian citizenship. Nietzsche believed his ancestors were Polish , [] at least toward the end of his life.

He wore a signet ring bearing the Radwan coat of arms , traceable back to Polish nobility of medieval times [] and the surname "Nicki" of the Polish noble szlachta family bearing that coat of arms.

His descendants later settled in the Electorate of Saxony circa the year Most scholars dispute Nietzsche's account of his family's origins.

Hans von Müller debunked the genealogy put forward by Nietzsche's sister in favor of a Polish noble heritage. The name derives from the forename Nikolaus, abbreviated to Nick ; assimilated with the Slavic Nitz, it first became Nitsche and then Nietzsche.

It is not known why Nietzsche wanted to be thought of as Polish nobility. According to biographer R.

Hollingdale , Nietzsche's propagation of the Polish ancestry myth may have been part of his "campaign against Germany.

Nietzsche never married. As articulated in the novella Fenitschka, she viewed the idea of sexual intercourse as prohibitive and marriage as a violation, with some suggesting that they indicated sexual repression and neurosis.

Deussen cited the episode of Cologne 's brothel in February as instrumental to understand the philosopher's way of thinking, mostly about women.

Nietzsche was surreptitiously accompanied to a "call house" from which he clumsily escaped upon seeing "a half dozen apparitions dressed with sequins and veils.

For him women had to sacrifice themselves to the care and benefit of men. Köhler argues that Nietzsche's syphilis, which is " Some maintain that Nietzsche contracted it in a male brothel in Genoa.

Köhler's views have not found wide acceptance among Nietzsche scholars and commentators. Allan Megill argues that, while Köhler's claim that Nietzsche was conflicted about his homosexual desire cannot simply be dismissed, "the evidence is very weak," and Köhler may be projecting twentieth-century understandings of sexuality on nineteenth-century notions of friendship.

Yet they offer other examples in which Nietzsche expressed his affections to women, including Wagner's wife Cosima Wagner.

Other scholars have argued that Köhler's sexuality-based interpretation is not helpful in understanding Nietzsche's philosophy.

Nietzsche composed several works for voice, piano, and violin beginning in at the Schulpforta in Naumburg, when he started to work on musical compositions.

Richard Wagner was dismissive of Nietzsche's music, allegedly mocking a birthday gift of a piano composition sent by Nietzsche in to his wife Cosima.

German conductor and pianist Hans von Bülow also described another of Nietzsche's pieces as "the most undelightful and the most antimusical draft on musical paper that I have faced in a long time.

In a letter of , Nietzsche claimed, "There has never been a philosopher who has been in essence a musician to such an extent as I am," although he also admitted that he "might be a thoroughly unsuccessful musician.

Because of Nietzsche's evocative style and provocative ideas, his philosophy generates passionate reactions. His works remain controversial, due to their varying interpretations and misinterpretations.

In the Western philosophy tradition, Nietzsche's writings have been described as the unique case of free revolutionary thought, that is, revolutionary in its structure and problems, although not tied to any revolutionary project.

The Apollonian and Dionysian is a two-fold philosophical concept, based on certain features of ancient Greek mythology: Apollo and Dionysus.

Even though the concept is famously related to The Birth of Tragedy , the poet Hölderlin had already spoken of it, and Winckelmann had talked of Bacchus.

Secondarily derivative are lyrical poetry and drama, which represent mere phenomenal appearances of objects.

In this way, tragedy is born from music. Nietzsche found in classical Athenian tragedy an art form that transcended the pessimism found in the so-called wisdom of Silenus.

The Greek spectators, by looking into the abyss of human suffering depicted by characters on stage, passionately and joyously affirmed life, finding it worth living.

A main theme in The Birth of Tragedy was that the fusion of Dionysian and Apollonian Kunsttrieben "artistic impulses" forms dramatic arts, or tragedies.

He goes on to argue that this fusion has not been achieved since the ancient Greek tragedians. Apollo represents harmony, progress, clarity, and logic, whereas Dionysus represents disorder, intoxication, emotion, and ecstasy.

Nietzsche used these two forces because, for him, the world of mind and order on one side, and passion and chaos on the other, formed principles that were fundamental to the Greek culture : [] [] the Apollonian side being a dreaming state, full of illusions; and Dionysian being the state of intoxication, representing the liberations of instinct and dissolution of boundaries.

In this mold, man appears as the satyr. He is the horror of the annihilation of the principle of individuality and at the same time someone who delights in its destruction.

Apollonian and Dionysian juxtapositions appear in the interplay of tragedy: the tragic hero of the drama, the main protagonist, struggles to make Apollonian order of his unjust and chaotic Dionysian fate, though he dies unfulfilled.

Elaborating on the conception of Hamlet as an intellectual who cannot make up his mind, and therefore is a living antithesis to the man of action, Nietzsche argues that a Dionysian figure possesses knowledge to realize that his actions cannot change the eternal balance of things, and it disgusts him enough not to be able to act at all.

Hamlet falls under this category—he has glimpsed the supernatural reality through the Ghost, he has gained true knowledge and knows that no action of his has the power to change this.

He describes primordial unity as the increase of strength, experience of fullness and plenitude bestowed by frenzy.

Frenzy acts as an intoxication, and is crucial for the physiological condition that enables the creation of any art.

In this state one enriches everything out of one's own fullness: whatever one sees, whatever wills is seen swelled, taut, strong, overloaded with strength.

A man in this state transforms things until they mirror his power—until they are reflections of his perfection. This having to transform into perfection is—art.

Nietzsche is adamant that the works of Aeschylus and Sophocles represent the apex of artistic creation, the true realization of tragedy; it is with Euripides , he states, that tragedy begins its Untergang literally 'going under' or 'downward-way;' meaning decline, deterioration, downfall, death, etc.

Nietzsche objects to Euripides' use of Socratic rationalism and morality in his tragedies, claiming that the infusion of ethics and reason robs tragedy of its foundation, namely the fragile balance of the Dionysian and Apollonian.

Socrates emphasized reason to such a degree that he diffused the value of myth and suffering to human knowledge. Plato continued along this path in his dialogues, and the modern world eventually inherited reason at the expense of artistic impulses that could be found only in the Apollonian and Dionysus dichotomy.

This leads to his conclusion that European culture from the time of Socrates had always been only Apollonian, thus decadent and unhealthy.

Only the fertile interplay of these two forces, brought together as an art, represented the best of Greek tragedy. An example of the impact of this idea can be seen in the book Patterns of Culture, where anthropologist Ruth Benedict acknowledges Nietzschean opposites of "Apollonian" and "Dionysian" as the stimulus for her thoughts about Native American cultures.

Here Foucault references Nietzsche's description of the birth and death of tragedy and his explanation that the subsequent tragedy of the Western world was the refusal of the tragic and, with that, refusal of the sacred.

Nietzsche claimed the death of God would eventually lead to the loss of any universal perspective on things, and along with it any coherent sense of objective truth.

In Also sprach Zarathustra , Nietzsche proclaims that a table of values hangs above every great person.

He points out that what is common among different peoples is the act of esteeming, of creating values, even if the values are different from one people to the next.

Nietzsche asserts that what made people great was not the content of their beliefs, but the act of valuing. Thus the values a community strives to articulate are not as important as the collective will to see those values come to pass.

The willing is more essential than the merit of the goal itself, according to Nietzsche. Only the yoke for the thousand necks is still lacking: the one goal is lacking.

Humanity still has no goal. The idea that one value-system is no more worthy than the next, although it may not be directly ascribed to Nietzsche, has become a common premise in modern social science.

Max Weber and Martin Heidegger absorbed it and made it their own. It shaped their philosophical and cultural endeavor, as well as their political understanding.

Weber, for example, relies on Nietzsche's perspectivism by maintaining that objectivity is still possible—but only after a particular perspective, value, or end has been established.

Among his critique of traditional philosophy of Kant , Descartes and Plato in Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche attacked thing in itself and cogito ergo sum "I think, therefore I am" as unfalsifiable beliefs based on naive acceptance of previous notions and fallacies.

While criticizing nihilism and Nietzsche together as a sign of general decay, [] he still commends him for recognizing psychological motives behind Kant and Hume 's moral philosophy: [].

For it was Nietzsche's historic achievement to understand more clearly than any other philosopher…not only that what purported to be appeals of objectivity were in fact expressions of subjective will, but also the nature of the problems that this posed for philosophy.

In Beyond Good and Evil and On the Genealogy of Morality , Nietzsche's genealogical account of the development of modern moral systems occupies a central place.

For Nietzsche, a fundamental shift took place during human history from thinking in terms of "good and bad" toward "good and evil.

The initial form of morality was set by a warrior aristocracy and other ruling castes of ancient civilizations. Aristocratic values of good and bad coincided with and reflected their relationship to lower castes such as slaves.

Nietzsche presents this "master morality" as the original system of morality—perhaps best associated with Homeric Greece. To be "bad" was to be like the slaves over whom the aristocracy ruled: poor, weak, sick, pathetic—objects of pity or disgust rather than hatred.

Here, value emerges from the contrast between good and evil: good being associated with other-worldliness, charity, piety, restraint, meekness, and submission; while evil is worldly, cruel, selfish, wealthy, and aggressive.

Nietzsche sees slave morality as pessimistic and fearful, its values emerging to improve the self-perception of slaves.

He associates slave morality with the Jewish and Christian traditions, as it is born out of the ressentiment of slaves. Nietzsche argued that the idea of equality allowed slaves to overcome their own condition without despising themselves.

And by denying the inherent inequality of people—in success, strength, beauty, and intelligence—slaves acquired a method of escape, namely by generating new values on the basis of rejecting master morality, which frustrated them.

It was used to overcome the slave's own sense of inferiority before their better-off masters. It does so by making out slave weakness, for example, to be a matter of choice, by relabeling it as "meekness".

The "good man" of master morality is precisely the "evil man" of slave morality, while the "bad man" is recast as the "good man".

Nietzsche sees slave morality as a source of the nihilism that has overtaken Europe. Modern Europe and Christianity exist in a hypocritical state due to a tension between master and slave morality, both contradictory values determining, to varying degrees, the values of most Europeans who are " motley ".

Nietzsche calls for exceptional people to no longer be ashamed in the face of a supposed morality-for-all, which he deems to be harmful to the flourishing of exceptional people.

He cautions, however, that morality, per se, is not bad; it is good for the masses, and should be left to them. Exceptional people, on the other hand, should follow their own "inner law".

A long-standing assumption about Nietzsche is that he preferred master over slave morality. However, eminent Nietzsche scholar Walter Kaufmann rejected this interpretation, writing that Nietzsche's analyses of these two types of morality were used only in a descriptive and historic sense; they were not meant for any kind of acceptance or glorification.

He linked the "salvation and future of the human race with the unconditional dominance" [] of master morality and called master morality "a higher order of values, the noble ones, those that say Yes to life, those that guarantee the future.

In Daybreak , Nietzsche begins his "Campaign against Morality". Nietzsche's concept " God is dead " applies to the doctrines of Christendom, though not to all other faiths: he claimed that Buddhism is a successful religion that he compliments for fostering critical thought.

Art as the single superior counterforce against all will to negation of life, art as the anti-Christian, anti-Buddhist, anti-Nihilist par excellence.

Nietzsche claimed that the Christian faith as practiced was not a proper representation of Jesus' teachings, as it forced people merely to believe in the way of Jesus but not to act as Jesus did; in particular, his example of refusing to judge people, something that Christians had constantly done.

Christianity is called the religion of pity. Pity stands opposed to the tonic emotions which heighten our vitality: it has a depressing effect.

We are deprived of strength when we feel pity. That loss of strength which suffering as such inflicts on life is still further increased and multiplied by pity.

Pity makes suffering contagious. In Ecce Homo Nietzsche called the establishment of moral systems based on a dichotomy of good and evil a "calamitous error", [] and wished to initiate a re-evaluation of the values of the Judeo-Christian world.

While Nietzsche attacked the principles of Judaism , he was not antisemitic : in his work On the Genealogy of Morality , he explicitly condemns antisemitism, and points out that his attack on Judaism was not an attack on contemporary Jewish people but specifically an attack upon the ancient Jewish priesthood who he claims antisemitic Christians paradoxically based their views upon.

Nietzsche felt that modern antisemitism was "despicable" and contrary to European ideals. The statement " God is dead ," occurring in several of Nietzsche's works notably in The Gay Science , has become one of his best-known remarks.

On the basis of it, most commentators [] regard Nietzsche as an atheist ; others such as Kaufmann suggest that this statement reflects a more subtle understanding of divinity.

Recent developments in modern science and the increasing secularization of European society had effectively 'killed' the Abrahamic God, who had served as the basis for meaning and value in the West for more than a thousand years.

The death of God may lead beyond bare perspectivism to outright nihilism , the belief that nothing has any inherent importance and that life lacks purpose.

Here he states that the Christian moral doctrine provides people with intrinsic value , belief in God which justifies the evil in the world and a basis for objective knowledge.

In this sense, in constructing a world where objective knowledge is possible, Christianity is an antidote to a primal form of nihilism—the despair of meaninglessness.

As Heidegger put the problem, "If God as the suprasensory ground and goal of all reality is dead, if the suprasensory world of the ideas has suffered the loss of its obligatory and above it its vitalizing and upbuilding power, then nothing more remains to which man can cling and by which he can orient himself.

One such reaction to the loss of meaning is what Nietzsche calls passive nihilism, which he recognizes in the pessimistic philosophy of Schopenhauer.

Schopenhauer's doctrine—which Nietzsche also refers to as Western Buddhism —advocates separating oneself from will and desires in order to reduce suffering.

Nietzsche characterizes this ascetic attitude as a "will to nothingness", whereby life turns away from itself, as there is nothing of value to be found in the world.

This moving away of all value in the world is characteristic of the nihilist, although in this, the nihilist appears to be inconsistent; this "will to nothingness" is still a disavowed form of willing.

A nihilist is a man who judges that the real world ought not to be, and that the world as it ought to be does not exist. According to this view, our existence action, suffering , willing, feeling has no meaning: this 'in vain' is the nihilists' pathos—an inconsistency on the part of the nihilists.

Nietzsche approaches the problem of nihilism as a deeply personal one, stating that this problem of the modern world has "become conscious" in him.

I believe it is one of the greatest crises, a moment of the deepest self-reflection of humanity.

Whether man recovers from it, whether he becomes master of this crisis, is a question of his strength!

He wished to hasten its coming only so that he could also hasten its ultimate departure. Heidegger interprets the death of God with what he explains as the death of metaphysics.

He concludes that metaphysics has reached its potential and that the ultimate fate and downfall of metaphysics was proclaimed with the statement "God is dead.

A basic element in Nietzsche's philosophical outlook is the " will to power " der Wille zur Macht , which he maintained provides a basis for understanding human behavior—more so than competing explanations, such as the ones based on pressure for adaptation or survival.

In presenting his theory of human behavior, Nietzsche also addressed, and attacked, concepts from philosophies popularly embraced in his days, such as Schopenhauer's notion of an aimless will or that of utilitarianism.

Utilitarians claim that what moves people is mainly the desire to be happy, to accumulate pleasure in their lives. But such a conception of happiness Nietzsche rejected as something limited to, and characteristic of, the bourgeois lifestyle of the English society, [] and instead put forth the idea that happiness is not an aim per se —it is instead a consequence of a successful pursuit of one's aims, of the overcoming of hurdles to one's actions—in other words, of the fulfillment of the will.

Related to his theory of the will to power is his speculation, which he did not deem final, [] regarding the reality of the physical world, including inorganic matter—that, like man's affections and impulses, the material world is also set by the dynamics of a form of the will to power.

At the core of his theory is a rejection of atomism —the idea that matter is composed of stable, indivisible units atoms.

Likewise he rejected as a mere interpretation the view that the movement of bodies is ruled by inexorable laws of nature, positing instead that movement was governed by the power relations between bodies and forces.

Other than Aphorism 36 in Beyond Good and Evil, where he raised a question regarding will to power as being in the material world, they argue, it was only in his notes unpublished by himself , where he wrote about a metaphysical will to power.

And they also claim that Nietzsche directed his landlord to burn those notes in when he left Sils Maria for the last time.

However, a recent study Huang shows that although it is true that in Nietzsche wanted some of his notes burned, the 'burning' story indicates little about his project on the will to power, not only because only 11 'aphorisms' saved from the flames were ultimately incorporated into The Will to Power this book contains 'aphorisms' , but also because these abandoned notes mainly focus on topics such as critique of morality while touching upon the 'feeling of power' only once.

It is a purely physical concept, involving no supernatural reincarnation , but the return of beings in the same bodies.

Nietzsche first invokes the idea of eternal return in a parable in Section of The Gay Science , and also in the chapter "Of the Vision and the Riddle" in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , among other places.

To comprehend eternal recurrence in his thought, and to not merely come to peace with it but to embrace it, requires amor fati , "love of fate".

According to Heidegger, it is the burden imposed by the question of eternal recurrence—whether or not such a thing could possibly be true—that is so significant in modern thought: "The way Nietzsche here patterns the first communication of the thought of the 'greatest burden' [of eternal recurrence] makes it clear that this 'thought of thoughts' is at the same time 'the most burdensome thought.

Nietzsche posits not only that the universe is recurring over infinite time and space, but that the different versions of events that have occurred in the past may at one point or another take place again, hence "all configurations that have previously existed on this earth must yet meet".

Alexander Nehamas writes in Nietzsche: Life as Literature of three ways of seeing the eternal recurrence:.

Nehamas draws the conclusion that if individuals constitute themselves through their actions, then they can only maintain themselves in their current state by living in a recurrence of past actions Nehamas, Nietzsche's thought is the negation of the idea of a history of salvation.

Another concept important to an understanding of Nietzsche's thought is the Übermensch. Zarathustra's gift of the overman is given to a mankind not aware of the problem to which the overman is the solution.

The overman does not follow the morality of common people since that favors mediocrity but instead rises above the notion of good and evil and above the " herd ".

He wants a kind of spiritual evolution of self-awareness and overcoming of traditional views on morality and justice that stem from the superstition beliefs still deeply rooted or related to the notion of God and Christianity.

I teach you the overman. Man is something that shall be overcome. What have you done to overcome him? All beings so far have created something beyond themselves; and do you want to be the ebb of this great flood, and even go back to the beasts rather than overcome man?

What is ape to man? A laughing stock or painful embarrassment. And man shall be that to overman: a laughing stock or painful embarrassment.

You have made your way from worm to man, and much in you is still worm. Once you were apes, and even now, too, man is more ape than any ape The overman is the meaning of the earth.

Let your will say: the overman shall be the meaning of the earth Man is a rope, tied between beast and overman—a rope over an abyss Zarathustra contrasts the overman with the last man of egalitarian modernity most obvious example being democracy , an alternative goal humanity might set for itself.

The last man is possible only by mankind's having bred an apathetic creature who has no great passion or commitment, who is unable to dream, who merely earns his living and keeps warm.

This concept appears only in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , and is presented as a condition that would render the creation of the overman impossible.

Some have suggested that the notion of eternal return is related to the overman, since willing the eternal return of the same is a necessary step if the overman is to create new values, untainted by the spirit of gravity or asceticism.

Values involve a rank-ordering of things, and so are inseparable from approval and disapproval; yet it was dissatisfaction that prompted men to seek refuge in other-worldliness and embrace other-worldly values.

It could seem that the overman, in being devoted to any values at all, would necessarily fail to create values that did not share some bit of asceticism.

Willing the eternal recurrence is presented as accepting the existence of the low while still recognizing it as the low, and thus as overcoming the spirit of gravity or asceticism.

One must have the strength of the overman in order to will the eternal recurrence; that is, only the overman will have the strength to fully accept all of his past life, including his failures and misdeeds, and to truly will their eternal return.

This action nearly kills Zarathustra, for example, and most human beings cannot avoid other-worldliness because they really are sick, not because of any choice they made.

The Nazis tried to incorporate the concept into their ideology. After his death, Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche became the curator and editor of her brother's manuscripts.

She reworked Nietzsche's unpublished writings to fit her own German nationalist ideology while often contradicting or obfuscating Nietzsche's stated opinions, which were explicitly opposed to antisemitism and nationalism.

Through her published editions, Nietzsche's work became associated with fascism and Nazism ; [29] 20th century scholars contested this interpretation of his work, and corrected editions of his writings were soon made available.

Although Nietzsche has famously been misrepresented as a predecessor to Nazism, he criticized anti-Semitism, pan-Germanism and, to a lesser extent, nationalism.

Friedrich Nietzsche held a pessimistic view on modern society and culture. His views stand against the concept of popular culture.

He believed the press and mass culture led to conformity and brought about mediocrity. Nietzsche saw a lack of intellectual progress, leading to the decline of the human species.

According to Nietzsche, individuals needed to overcome this form of mass culture. He believed some people were able to become superior individuals through the use of will power.

By rising above mass culture, society would produce higher, brighter and healthier human beings. A trained philologist, Nietzsche had a thorough knowledge of Greek philosophy.

He read Kant , Plato , Mill , Schopenhauer and Spir , [] who became his main opponents in his philosophy, and later Baruch Spinoza , whom he saw as his "precursor" in many respects [] but as a personification of the "ascetic ideal" in others.

However, Nietzsche referred to Kant as a "moral fanatic", Plato as "boring", Mill as a "blockhead", and of Spinoza he said: "How much of personal timidity and vulnerability does this masquerade of a sickly recluse betray?

Nietzsche's philosophy, while innovative and revolutionary, was indebted to many predecessors.

While at Basel, Nietzsche offered lecture courses on pre-Platonic philosophers for several years, and the text of this lecture series has been characterized as a "lost link" in the development of his thought.

His symbolism of the world as "child play" marked by amoral spontaneity and lack of definite rules was appreciated by Nietzsche.

In his Egotism in German Philosophy , Santayana claimed that Nietzsche's whole philosophy was a reaction to Schopenhauer.

Santayana wrote that Nietzsche's work was "an emendation of that of Schopenhauer. The will to live would become the will to dominate; pessimism founded on reflection would become optimism founded on courage; the suspense of the will in contemplation would yield to a more biological account of intelligence and taste; finally in the place of pity and asceticism Schopenhauer's two principles of morals Nietzsche would set up the duty of asserting the will at all costs and being cruelly but beautifully strong.

These points of difference from Schopenhauer cover the whole philosophy of Nietzsche. In Nietzsche wrote an enthusiastic essay on his "favorite poet," Friedrich Hölderlin , mostly forgotten at that time.

Nietzsche's works did not reach a wide readership during his active writing career. However, in the influential Danish critic Georg Brandes aroused considerable excitement about Nietzsche through a series of lectures he gave at the University of Copenhagen.

In the years after Nietzsche's death in , his works became better known, and readers have responded to them in complex and sometimes controversial ways.

He had some following among left-wing Germans in the s; in — German conservatives wanted to ban his work as subversive.

During the late 19th century Nietzsche's ideas were commonly associated with anarchist movements and appear to have had influence within them, particularly in France and the United States.

Mencken produced the first book on Nietzsche in English in , The Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche , and in a book of translated paragraphs from Nietzsche, increasing knowledge of his philosophy in the United States.

Auden who wrote of Nietzsche in his New Year Letter released in in The Double Man : "O masterly debunker of our liberal fallacies…all your life you stormed, like your English forerunner Blake.

Writer on music Donald Mitchell notes that Gustav Mahler was "attracted to the poetic fire of Zarathustra, but repelled by the intellectual core of its writings.

Frederick Delius produced a piece of choral music, A Mass of Life , based on a text of Thus Spoke Zarathustra , while Richard Strauss who also based his Also sprach Zarathustra on the same book , was only interested in finishing "another chapter of symphonic autobiography.

Lawrence , Edith Södergran and Yukio Mishima. Nietzsche was an early influence on the poetry of Rainer Maria Rilke.

Knut Hamsun counted Nietzsche, along with Strindberg and Dostoyevsky, as one of his primary influences.

Painter Giovanni Segantini was fascinated by Thus Spoke Zarathustra , and he drew an illustration for the first Italian translation of the book.

By World War I , Nietzsche had acquired a reputation as an inspiration for both right-wing German militarism and leftist politics. Gordon [] and Martin Buber , who went so far as to extoll Nietzsche as a "creator" and "emissary of life".

He also shared Nietzsche's view of tragedy. Adorno [] can be seen in the popular Dialectic of Enlightenment. Adorno summed up Nietzsche's philosophy as expressing the "humane in a world in which humanity has become a sham.

Nietzsche's growing prominence suffered a severe setback when his works became closely associated with Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany.

Many political leaders of the twentieth century were at least superficially familiar with Nietzsche's ideas, although it is not always possible to determine whether they actually read his work.

It is debated among scholars whether Hitler read Nietzsche, although if he did his reading of him may not have been extensive. Mussolini , [] [] Charles de Gaulle [] and Huey P.

Newton [] read Nietzsche. Richard Nixon read Nietzsche with "curious interest", and his book Beyond Peace might have taken its title from Nietzsche's book Beyond Good and Evil which Nixon read beforehand.

A decade after World War II, there was a revival of Nietzsche's philosophical writings thanks to exhaustive translations and analyses by Walter Kaufmann and R.

Others, well known philosophers in their own right, wrote commentaries on Nietzsche's philosophy, including Martin Heidegger , who produced a four-volume study, and Lev Shestov , who wrote a book called Dostoyevski, Tolstoy and Nietzsche where he portrays Nietzsche and Dostoyevski as the "thinkers of tragedy".

Camus described Nietzsche as "the only artist to have derived the extreme consequences of an aesthetics of the absurd ". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Nietzsche disambiguation. German philosopher. Nietzsche in Basel , Switzerland , c.

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche. Röcken , Saxony , Prussia. University of Bonn Leipzig University. Main article: Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche.

Let us look away. After that penultimate section, Nietzsche quotes the first section of Thus Spoke Zarathustra , which returns repeatedly to the same theme of affirmation see, e.

That critique is directed in large measure against aspects of morality that turn the agent against herself—or more broadly, against the side of Christianity that condemns earthly existence, demanding that we repent of it as the price of admission to a different, superior plane of being.

What is wrong with these views, according to Nietzsche, is that they negate our life, instead of affirming it. The affirmation of life can be framed as the rejection of nihilism, so understood.

For Nietzsche, that involves a two-sided project: it should both undermine values by reference to which the world could not honestly be affirmed, while also articulating the values exemplified by life and the world that make them affirmable.

Readers interested in this issue about the compatibility of Nietzschean affirmation with Nietzschean critique should also consult Huddleston, forthcoming, a, which reaches a more diffident conclusion than this entry.

If we are to affirm our life and the world, however, we had better be honest about what they are really like. Endorsing things under some illusory Panglossian description is not affirmation, but self-delusion.

How much truth does a spirit endure , how much truth does it dare? More and more that became for me the real measure of value. EH Pref.

Some texts present truthfulness as a kind of personal commitment—one tied to particular projects and a way of life in which Nietzsche happens to have invested.

For example, in GS 2 Nietzsche expresses bewilderment in the face of people who do not value honesty:. I do not want to believe it although it is palpable: the great majority of people lacks an intellectual conscience.

No, life has not disappointed me… ever since the day when the great liberator came to me: the idea that life could be an experiment for the seeker for knowledge….

Indeed, he assigns the highest cultural importance to the experiment testing whether such a life can be well lived:.

A thinker is now that being in whom the impulse for truth and those life-preserving errors now clash for their first fight, after the impulse for truth has proved to be also a life-preserving power.

Compared to the significance of this fight, everything else is a matter of indifference: the ultimate question about the conditions of life has been posed here, and we confront the first attempt to answer the question by experiment.

To what extent can truth endure incorporation? That is the question; that is the experiment. A second strand of texts emphasizes connections between truthfulness and courage , thereby valorizing honesty as the manifestation of an overall virtuous character marked by resoluteness, determination, and spiritual strength.

Such wishful thinking is not only cognitively corrupt, for Nietzsche, but a troubling manifestation of irresolution and cowardice.

Finally, it is worth noting that even when Nietzsche raises doubts about this commitment to truthfulness, his very questions are clearly motivated by the central importance of that value.

But even in the face of such worries, Nietzsche does not simply give up on truthfulness. But if truthfulness is a core value for Nietzsche, he is nevertheless famous for insisting that we also need illusion to live well.

From the beginning of his career to the end, he insisted on the irreplaceable value of art precisely because of its power to ensconce us in illusion.

Art and artistry carry value for Nietzsche both as a straightforward first-order matter, and also as a source of higher-order lessons about how to create value more generally.

But Nietzsche is just as invested in the first-order evaluative point that what makes a life admirable includes its aesthetic features.

One last point deserves special mention. Significantly, the opposition here is not just the one emphasized in The Birth of Tragedy —that the substantive truth about the world might be disturbing enough to demand some artistic salve that helps us cope.

Nietzsche raises a more specific worry about the deleterious effects of the virtue of honesty—about the will to truth, rather than what is true—and artistry is wheeled in to alleviate them, as well:.

If we had not welcomed the arts and invented this kind of cult of the untrue, then the realization of general untruth and mendaciousness that now comes to us through science—the realization that delusion and error are conditions of human knowledge and sensation—would be utterly unbearable.

Honesty would lead to nausea and suicide. But now there is a counterforce against our honesty that helps us to avoid such consequences: art as the good will to appearance.

Those views would entail that the basic conditions of cognition prevent our ever knowing things as they really are, independently of us see Anderson , ; Hussain ; and the entry on Friedrich Albert Lange.

But while those are the immediate allusions, Nietzsche also endorses more general ideas with similar implications—e.

What is most important, however, is the structure of the thought in GS So it seems that the values Nietzsche endorses conflict with one another, and that very fact is crucial to the value they have for us Anderson — This strand of thought continues to receive strong emphasis in recent interpretations—see, e.

As Reginster shows, what opposes Nietzschean freedom of spirit is fanaticism , understood as a vehement commitment to some faith or value-set given from without, which is motivated by a need to believe in something because one lacks the self-determination to think for oneself GS A variety of scholars have recently explored the resources of this line of thought in Nietzsche; Anderson surveys the literature, and notable contributions include Ridley b , Pippin , , Reginster , Katsafanas b, , , , and especially the papers in Gemes and May We have seen that Nietzsche promotes a number of different values.

In some cases, these values reinforce one another. For this alone is fitting for a philosopher. We have no right to be single in anything: we may neither err nor hit upon the truth singly.

GM Pref. For example, the account of honesty and artistry explored in sections 3. As the passage makes clear, however, Nietzschean perspectives are themselves rooted in affects and the valuations to which affects give rise , and in his mind, the ability to deploy a variety of perspectives is just as important for our practical and evaluative lives as it is for cognitive life.

Meanwhile, Nietzschean pluralism has been a major theme of several landmark Nietzsche studies e. From his pluralistic point of view, it is a selling point, not a drawback, that he has many other value commitments, and that they interact in complex patterns to support, inform, and sometimes to oppose or limit one another, rather than being parts of a single, hierarchically ordered, systematic axiology.

A probing investigation into the psyche was a leading preoccupation for Nietzsche throughout his career, and this aspect of his thought has rightly been accorded central importance across a long stretch of the reception, all the way from Kaufmann to recent work by Pippin , Katsafanas , and others.

For psychology is once again on the path to the fundamental problems. On the positive side, Nietzsche is equally keen to detail the psychological conditions he thinks would be healthier for both individuals and cultures see, e.

Aside from its instrumental support for these other projects, Nietzsche pursues psychological inquiry for its own sake, and apparently also for the sake of the self-knowledge that it intrinsically involves GM III, 9; GS Pref.

Debate begins with the object of psychology itself, the psyche, self, or soul. This apparent conflict in the texts has encouraged competing interpretations, with commentators emphasizing the strands in Nietzsche to which they have more philosophical sympathy.

In a diametrically opposed direction from those first three, Sebastian Gardner insists that, while Nietzsche was sometimes tempted by skepticism about a self which can stand back from the solicitations of inclination and control them, his own doctrines about the creation of value and self-overcoming in fact commit him to something like a Kantian transcendental ego, despite his protestations to the contrary.

These attitude types have been intensively studied in recent work see esp. Richardson and Katsafanas b, , ; see also Anderson a, Clark and Dudrick While much remains controversial, it is helpful to think of drives as dispositions toward general patterns of activity; they aim at activity of the relevant sort e.

Affects are emotional states that combine a receptive and felt responsiveness to the world with a tendency toward a distinctive pattern of reaction—states like love, hate, anger, fear, joy, etc.

But what about a personal-level self to serve as the owner of such attitudes? Here Nietzsche alludes to traditional rational psychology, and its basic inference from the pure unity of consciousness to the simplicity of the soul, and thence to its indivisibility, indestructibility, and immortality.

As he notes, these moves treat the soul as an indivisible hence incorruptible atom, or monad. Nietzsche thus construes the psyche, or self, as an emergent structure arising from such sub-personal constituents when those stand in the appropriate relations , thereby reversing the traditional account, which treats sub-personal attitudes as mere modes, or ways of being, proper to a preexisting unitary mental substance— see Anderson a for an attempt to flesh out the picture; see also Gemes ; Hales and Welshon — Moreover, since the drives and affects that constitute it are individuated largely in terms of what and how they represent , the psychology needed to investigate the soul must be an interpretive, and not merely and strictly a causal, form of inquiry see Pippin While this suggestion, and even the very idea of self-creation, has remained controversial both textually and philosophically see, e.

Most of us this entry included are defeated by the bewildering richness of the subject matter and content ourselves with a few observations of special relevance to our other purposes.

Perhaps Alexander Nehamas 13—41 comes closest to meeting the explanatory challenge by highlighting the key underlying fact that defeats our interpretive efforts—the seemingly endless variety of stylistic effects that Nietzsche deploys.

Most philosophers write treatises or scholarly articles, governed by a precisely articulated thesis for which they present a sustained and carefully defended argument.

Many are divided into short, numbered sections, which only sometimes have obvious connections to nearby sections.

While the sections within a part are often thematically related see, e. To the natural complaint that such telegraphic treatment courts misunderstanding, he replies that.

One does not only wish to be understood when one writes; one wishes just as surely not to be understood. Thus Spoke Zarathustra is unified by following the career of a central character, but the unity is loose and picaresque-like—a sequence of episodes which arrives at a somewhat equivocal or at a minimum, at a controversial conclusion that imposes only weak narrative unity on the whole.

Lichtenberg wrote his fragments for himself rather than the public, but the strategies he developed nevertheless made a serious impact.

His aphorisms revealed how the form could be extended from its essentially pedagogical origins providing compressed, memorable form for some principle or observation into a sustained, exploratory mode of reasoning with oneself.

Occasionally, these aphorisms are even set up as mini-dialogues:. But the reader should take care, for not every Nietzschean aphorism is an experiment, and not every short section is an aphorism.

Indeed, many sections build up to an aphorism, which enters only as a proper part included within the section, perhaps serving as its culmination or a kind of summative conclusion rather than experiment.

But the first section itself is not simply one long aphorism. Instead, the aphorism that requires so much interpretation is the compressed, high-impact arrival point of GM III, 1; the section begins by noting a series of different things that the ascetic ideal has meant, listed one after another and serving as a kind of outline for the Treatise, before culminating in the taut aphorism:.

That the ascetic ideal has meant so much to man, however, is an expression of the basic fact of the human will, its horror vacui : it needs a goal ,—and it would rather will nothingness than not will.

GM III, 1. It is to this compressed formulation, and not the entirety of the section, that Nietzsche returns when he wraps up his interpretation in GM III, But the aphoristic form is only one challenge among many.

What is more, Nietzsche makes heavy use of allusions to both contemporary and historical writing, and without that context one is very likely to miss his meaning— BGE 11—15 offers a particularly dense set of examples; see Clark and Dudrick 87— for one reading to which Hussain and Anderson propose alternatives.

Almost as often, Nietzsche invents a persona so as to work out some view that he will go on to qualify or reject BGE 2 is a clear example , so it can be a steep challenge just to keep track of the various voices in action within the text.

Nevertheless, such comprehensive readings are there to be had. Clark and Dudrick offer a a sustained, albeit controversial, close reading exploring the unity of Part I of Beyond Good and Evil ; their efforts reveal the scope of the difficulty—they needed an entire book to explain the allusions and connections involved in just twenty-three sections of Nietzsche, covering some couple-dozen pages!

Following such connections, he proposes, allows us to understand the books as monologues presented by a narrator. It is impossible to conclude that the work is not deliberately designed to be as offensive as possible to any earnest Christian believer.

He achieves both at once by ensuring that exactly those readers will be so offended by his tone that their anger will impair understanding and they will fail to follow his argument.

If this is right, the very vitriol of the Genealogy arises from an aim to be heard only by the right audience—the one it can potentially aid rather than harm—thereby overcoming the problem that.

There are books that have opposite values for soul and health, depending on whether the lower soul… or the higher and more vigorous ones turn to them.

Commentators have therefore expended considerable effort working out rational reconstructions of these doctrines.

This section offers brief explanations of three of the most important: the will to power, the eternal recurrence, and perspectivism.

Others receive it as an anti-essentialist rejection of traditional metaphysical theorizing in which abstract and shifting power-centers replace stable entities Nehamas 74—, Poellner —98 , or else as a psychological hypothesis Kaufmann [] , Soll ; Clark and Dudrick , or a quasi- scientific conjecture Schacht ; Abel ; Anderson , b.

As we saw 3. Some commentators take this to suggest a monistic psychology in which all drives whatsoever aim at power, and so count as manifestations of a single underlying drive or drive-type.

He thought that past philosophers had largely ignored the influence of their own perspectives on their work, and had therefore failed to control those perspectival effects BGE 6; see BGE I more generally.

This famous passage bluntly rejects the idea, dominant in philosophy at least since Plato, that knowledge essentially involves a form of objectivity that penetrates behind all subjective appearances to reveal the way things really are, independently of any point of view whatsoever.

There is of course an implicit criticism of the traditional picture of a-perspectival objectivity here, but there is equally a positive set of recommendations about how to pursue knowledge as a finite, limited cognitive agent.

In working out his perspective optics of cognition, Nietzsche built on contemporary developments in the theory of cognition—particularly the work of non-orthodox neo-Kantians like Friedrich Lange and positivists like Ernst Mach, who proposed naturalized, psychologically-based versions of the broad type of theory of cognition initially developed by Kant and Schopenhauer see Clark ; Kaulbach , ; Anderson , , ; Green ; Hill ; Hussain The Kantian thought was that certain very basic structural features of the world we know space, time, causal relations, etc.

In particular, the Genealogy passage emphasizes that for him, perspectives are always rooted in affects and their associated patterns of valuation.

Thus, theoretical claims not only need to be analyzed from the point of view of truth, but can also be diagnosed as symptoms and thereby traced back to the complex configurations of drive and affect from the point of view of which they make sense.

Nietzsche makes perspectivist claims not only concerning the side of the cognitive subject, but also about the side of the truth, or reality, we aim to know.

These efforts argue for strong connections between perspectivism and the will to power doctrine section 6.

Nietzsche himself suggests that the eternal recurrence was his most important thought, but that has not made it any easier for commentators to understand.

But the texts are difficult to interpret. In the early reception, most readers took Nietzsche to be offering a cosmological hypothesis about the structure of time or of fate see Simmel [] ; Heidegger ; Löwith [] ; Jaspers [] , and various problems have been posed for the thesis, so understood Simmel [] —1n; Soll ; Anderson n Skeptics like Loeb are correct to insist that, if recurrence is to be understood as a practical thought experiment, commentators owe us an account of how the particular features of the relevant thoughts are supposed to make any difference Soll already posed a stark form of this challenge.

Three features seem especially salient: we are supposed to imagine 1 that the past recurs , so that what has happened in the past will be re-experienced in the future; 2 that what recurs is the same in every detail; and 3 that the recurrence happens not just once more, or even many times more, but eternally.

The supposed recurrence 1 plausibly matters as a device for overcoming the natural bias toward the future in practical reasoning.

Since we cannot change the past but think of ourselves as still able to do something about the future, our practical attention is understandably future directed.

By imaginatively locating our entire life once again in the future, the thought experiment can mobilize our practical self-concern to direct its evaluative resources onto our life as a whole.

Similar considerations motivate the constraint of sameness 2. If my assessment of myself simply elided any events or features of my self, life, or world with which I was discontent, it would hardly count as an honest, thorough self-examination.

The constraint that the life I imagine to recur must be the same in every detail is designed to block any such elisions. As Reginster —7 observes, it is more difficult to explain the role of the third constraint, eternity.

Reginster proposes that the eternity constraint is meant to reinforce the idea that the thought experiment calls for an especially wholehearted form of affirmation— joy —whose strength is measured by the involvement of a wish that our essentially finite lives could be eternal.

More modestly, one might think that Nietzsche considered it important to rule out as insufficient a particular kind of conditional affirmation, which is suggested by the Christian eschatological context, and which would leave in place the judgment that earthly human life carries intrinsically negative value.

After all, the devout Christian might affirm her earthly life as a test of faith , which is to be redeemed by an eternal heavenly reward should one pass that test—all the while retaining her commitment that, considered by itself, earthly life is a sinful condition to be rejected.

It is held in many university libraries and is typically cited by volume and page number using the abbreviation KGA.

This entry cites published works in the English translations listed below, and for the unpublished writing, it cites the useful abridged version of the critical edition, prepared for students and scholars the Kritische Studienausgabe , KSA.

Those references follow standard scholarly practice, providing volume and page numbers of the KSA , preceded by the notebook and fragment numbers established for the overall critical edition.

English translations have now appeared containing selections from the unpublished writing included in KSA , and those volumes WEN , WLN are listed among the translations in the next section.

The full bibliographical information for the German editions is. Citations follow the North American Nietzsche Society system of abbreviations for reference to English translations.

For each work, the primary translation quoted in the entry is listed first, followed by other translations that were consulted. Original date of German publication is given in parentheses at the end of each entry.

I am grateful to Rachel Cristy for exchanges that helped me work out basic ideas for the structure and contents of this entry.

Joshua Landy, Andrew Huddleston, Christopher Janaway, and Elijah Millgram provided helpful feedback on a late draft, and each saved me from several errors.

Friedrich Nietzsche First published Fri Mar 17, Life and Works 2. Critique of Religion and Morality 3.

Value Creation 3. The Self and Self-fashioning 5. Key Doctrines 6. Life and Works Nietzsche was born on October 15, , in Röcken near Leipzig , where his father was a Lutheran minister.

Critique of Religion and Morality Nietzsche is arguably most famous for his criticisms of traditional European moral commitments, together with their foundations in Christianity.

GM III, 15 Thus, Nietzsche suggests, The principal bow stroke the ascetic priest allowed himself to cause the human soul to resound with wrenching and ecstatic music of every kind was executed—everyone knows this—by exploiting the feeling of guilt.

A well-known passage appears near the opening of the late work, The Antichrist : What is good? What is bad?

Everything that is born of weakness. What is happiness? The feeling that power is growing , that resistance is overcome.

For example, in GS 2 Nietzsche expresses bewilderment in the face of people who do not value honesty: I do not want to believe it although it is palpable: the great majority of people lacks an intellectual conscience.

Nietzsche often recommends the pursuit of knowledge as a way of life: No, life has not disappointed me… ever since the day when the great liberator came to me: the idea that life could be an experiment for the seeker for knowledge….

GS Indeed, he assigns the highest cultural importance to the experiment testing whether such a life can be well lived: A thinker is now that being in whom the impulse for truth and those life-preserving errors now clash for their first fight, after the impulse for truth has proved to be also a life-preserving power.

GS A second strand of texts emphasizes connections between truthfulness and courage , thereby valorizing honesty as the manifestation of an overall virtuous character marked by resoluteness, determination, and spiritual strength.

GS But even in the face of such worries, Nietzsche does not simply give up on truthfulness. Nietzsche raises a more specific worry about the deleterious effects of the virtue of honesty—about the will to truth, rather than what is true—and artistry is wheeled in to alleviate them, as well: If we had not welcomed the arts and invented this kind of cult of the untrue, then the realization of general untruth and mendaciousness that now comes to us through science—the realization that delusion and error are conditions of human knowledge and sensation—would be utterly unbearable.

GM III, 12 As the passage makes clear, however, Nietzschean perspectives are themselves rooted in affects and the valuations to which affects give rise , and in his mind, the ability to deploy a variety of perspectives is just as important for our practical and evaluative lives as it is for cognitive life.

The Self and Self-fashioning A probing investigation into the psyche was a leading preoccupation for Nietzsche throughout his career, and this aspect of his thought has rightly been accorded central importance across a long stretch of the reception, all the way from Kaufmann to recent work by Pippin , Katsafanas , and others.

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In this mold, man appears as the satyr. He is the horror of the annihilation of the principle of individuality and at the same time someone who delights in its destruction.

Apollonian and Dionysian juxtapositions appear in the interplay of tragedy: the tragic hero of the drama, the main protagonist, struggles to make Apollonian order of his unjust and chaotic Dionysian fate, though he dies unfulfilled.

Elaborating on the conception of Hamlet as an intellectual who cannot make up his mind, and therefore is a living antithesis to the man of action, Nietzsche argues that a Dionysian figure possesses knowledge to realize that his actions cannot change the eternal balance of things, and it disgusts him enough not to be able to act at all.

Hamlet falls under this category—he has glimpsed the supernatural reality through the Ghost, he has gained true knowledge and knows that no action of his has the power to change this.

He describes primordial unity as the increase of strength, experience of fullness and plenitude bestowed by frenzy. Frenzy acts as an intoxication, and is crucial for the physiological condition that enables the creation of any art.

In this state one enriches everything out of one's own fullness: whatever one sees, whatever wills is seen swelled, taut, strong, overloaded with strength.

A man in this state transforms things until they mirror his power—until they are reflections of his perfection.

This having to transform into perfection is—art. Nietzsche is adamant that the works of Aeschylus and Sophocles represent the apex of artistic creation, the true realization of tragedy; it is with Euripides , he states, that tragedy begins its Untergang literally 'going under' or 'downward-way;' meaning decline, deterioration, downfall, death, etc.

Nietzsche objects to Euripides' use of Socratic rationalism and morality in his tragedies, claiming that the infusion of ethics and reason robs tragedy of its foundation, namely the fragile balance of the Dionysian and Apollonian.

Socrates emphasized reason to such a degree that he diffused the value of myth and suffering to human knowledge. Plato continued along this path in his dialogues, and the modern world eventually inherited reason at the expense of artistic impulses that could be found only in the Apollonian and Dionysus dichotomy.

This leads to his conclusion that European culture from the time of Socrates had always been only Apollonian, thus decadent and unhealthy. Only the fertile interplay of these two forces, brought together as an art, represented the best of Greek tragedy.

An example of the impact of this idea can be seen in the book Patterns of Culture, where anthropologist Ruth Benedict acknowledges Nietzschean opposites of "Apollonian" and "Dionysian" as the stimulus for her thoughts about Native American cultures.

Here Foucault references Nietzsche's description of the birth and death of tragedy and his explanation that the subsequent tragedy of the Western world was the refusal of the tragic and, with that, refusal of the sacred.

Nietzsche claimed the death of God would eventually lead to the loss of any universal perspective on things, and along with it any coherent sense of objective truth.

In Also sprach Zarathustra , Nietzsche proclaims that a table of values hangs above every great person. He points out that what is common among different peoples is the act of esteeming, of creating values, even if the values are different from one people to the next.

Nietzsche asserts that what made people great was not the content of their beliefs, but the act of valuing. Thus the values a community strives to articulate are not as important as the collective will to see those values come to pass.

The willing is more essential than the merit of the goal itself, according to Nietzsche. Only the yoke for the thousand necks is still lacking: the one goal is lacking.

Humanity still has no goal. The idea that one value-system is no more worthy than the next, although it may not be directly ascribed to Nietzsche, has become a common premise in modern social science.

Max Weber and Martin Heidegger absorbed it and made it their own. It shaped their philosophical and cultural endeavor, as well as their political understanding.

Weber, for example, relies on Nietzsche's perspectivism by maintaining that objectivity is still possible—but only after a particular perspective, value, or end has been established.

Among his critique of traditional philosophy of Kant , Descartes and Plato in Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche attacked thing in itself and cogito ergo sum "I think, therefore I am" as unfalsifiable beliefs based on naive acceptance of previous notions and fallacies.

While criticizing nihilism and Nietzsche together as a sign of general decay, [] he still commends him for recognizing psychological motives behind Kant and Hume 's moral philosophy: [].

For it was Nietzsche's historic achievement to understand more clearly than any other philosopher…not only that what purported to be appeals of objectivity were in fact expressions of subjective will, but also the nature of the problems that this posed for philosophy.

In Beyond Good and Evil and On the Genealogy of Morality , Nietzsche's genealogical account of the development of modern moral systems occupies a central place.

For Nietzsche, a fundamental shift took place during human history from thinking in terms of "good and bad" toward "good and evil.

The initial form of morality was set by a warrior aristocracy and other ruling castes of ancient civilizations. Aristocratic values of good and bad coincided with and reflected their relationship to lower castes such as slaves.

Nietzsche presents this "master morality" as the original system of morality—perhaps best associated with Homeric Greece. To be "bad" was to be like the slaves over whom the aristocracy ruled: poor, weak, sick, pathetic—objects of pity or disgust rather than hatred.

Here, value emerges from the contrast between good and evil: good being associated with other-worldliness, charity, piety, restraint, meekness, and submission; while evil is worldly, cruel, selfish, wealthy, and aggressive.

Nietzsche sees slave morality as pessimistic and fearful, its values emerging to improve the self-perception of slaves. He associates slave morality with the Jewish and Christian traditions, as it is born out of the ressentiment of slaves.

Nietzsche argued that the idea of equality allowed slaves to overcome their own condition without despising themselves. And by denying the inherent inequality of people—in success, strength, beauty, and intelligence—slaves acquired a method of escape, namely by generating new values on the basis of rejecting master morality, which frustrated them.

It was used to overcome the slave's own sense of inferiority before their better-off masters. It does so by making out slave weakness, for example, to be a matter of choice, by relabeling it as "meekness".

The "good man" of master morality is precisely the "evil man" of slave morality, while the "bad man" is recast as the "good man".

Nietzsche sees slave morality as a source of the nihilism that has overtaken Europe. Modern Europe and Christianity exist in a hypocritical state due to a tension between master and slave morality, both contradictory values determining, to varying degrees, the values of most Europeans who are " motley ".

Nietzsche calls for exceptional people to no longer be ashamed in the face of a supposed morality-for-all, which he deems to be harmful to the flourishing of exceptional people.

He cautions, however, that morality, per se, is not bad; it is good for the masses, and should be left to them.

Exceptional people, on the other hand, should follow their own "inner law". A long-standing assumption about Nietzsche is that he preferred master over slave morality.

However, eminent Nietzsche scholar Walter Kaufmann rejected this interpretation, writing that Nietzsche's analyses of these two types of morality were used only in a descriptive and historic sense; they were not meant for any kind of acceptance or glorification.

He linked the "salvation and future of the human race with the unconditional dominance" [] of master morality and called master morality "a higher order of values, the noble ones, those that say Yes to life, those that guarantee the future.

In Daybreak , Nietzsche begins his "Campaign against Morality". Nietzsche's concept " God is dead " applies to the doctrines of Christendom, though not to all other faiths: he claimed that Buddhism is a successful religion that he compliments for fostering critical thought.

Art as the single superior counterforce against all will to negation of life, art as the anti-Christian, anti-Buddhist, anti-Nihilist par excellence.

Nietzsche claimed that the Christian faith as practiced was not a proper representation of Jesus' teachings, as it forced people merely to believe in the way of Jesus but not to act as Jesus did; in particular, his example of refusing to judge people, something that Christians had constantly done.

Christianity is called the religion of pity. Pity stands opposed to the tonic emotions which heighten our vitality: it has a depressing effect.

We are deprived of strength when we feel pity. That loss of strength which suffering as such inflicts on life is still further increased and multiplied by pity.

Pity makes suffering contagious. In Ecce Homo Nietzsche called the establishment of moral systems based on a dichotomy of good and evil a "calamitous error", [] and wished to initiate a re-evaluation of the values of the Judeo-Christian world.

While Nietzsche attacked the principles of Judaism , he was not antisemitic : in his work On the Genealogy of Morality , he explicitly condemns antisemitism, and points out that his attack on Judaism was not an attack on contemporary Jewish people but specifically an attack upon the ancient Jewish priesthood who he claims antisemitic Christians paradoxically based their views upon.

Nietzsche felt that modern antisemitism was "despicable" and contrary to European ideals. The statement " God is dead ," occurring in several of Nietzsche's works notably in The Gay Science , has become one of his best-known remarks.

On the basis of it, most commentators [] regard Nietzsche as an atheist ; others such as Kaufmann suggest that this statement reflects a more subtle understanding of divinity.

Recent developments in modern science and the increasing secularization of European society had effectively 'killed' the Abrahamic God, who had served as the basis for meaning and value in the West for more than a thousand years.

The death of God may lead beyond bare perspectivism to outright nihilism , the belief that nothing has any inherent importance and that life lacks purpose.

Here he states that the Christian moral doctrine provides people with intrinsic value , belief in God which justifies the evil in the world and a basis for objective knowledge.

In this sense, in constructing a world where objective knowledge is possible, Christianity is an antidote to a primal form of nihilism—the despair of meaninglessness.

As Heidegger put the problem, "If God as the suprasensory ground and goal of all reality is dead, if the suprasensory world of the ideas has suffered the loss of its obligatory and above it its vitalizing and upbuilding power, then nothing more remains to which man can cling and by which he can orient himself.

One such reaction to the loss of meaning is what Nietzsche calls passive nihilism, which he recognizes in the pessimistic philosophy of Schopenhauer.

Schopenhauer's doctrine—which Nietzsche also refers to as Western Buddhism —advocates separating oneself from will and desires in order to reduce suffering.

Nietzsche characterizes this ascetic attitude as a "will to nothingness", whereby life turns away from itself, as there is nothing of value to be found in the world.

This moving away of all value in the world is characteristic of the nihilist, although in this, the nihilist appears to be inconsistent; this "will to nothingness" is still a disavowed form of willing.

A nihilist is a man who judges that the real world ought not to be, and that the world as it ought to be does not exist. According to this view, our existence action, suffering , willing, feeling has no meaning: this 'in vain' is the nihilists' pathos—an inconsistency on the part of the nihilists.

Nietzsche approaches the problem of nihilism as a deeply personal one, stating that this problem of the modern world has "become conscious" in him.

I believe it is one of the greatest crises, a moment of the deepest self-reflection of humanity. Whether man recovers from it, whether he becomes master of this crisis, is a question of his strength!

He wished to hasten its coming only so that he could also hasten its ultimate departure. Heidegger interprets the death of God with what he explains as the death of metaphysics.

He concludes that metaphysics has reached its potential and that the ultimate fate and downfall of metaphysics was proclaimed with the statement "God is dead.

A basic element in Nietzsche's philosophical outlook is the " will to power " der Wille zur Macht , which he maintained provides a basis for understanding human behavior—more so than competing explanations, such as the ones based on pressure for adaptation or survival.

In presenting his theory of human behavior, Nietzsche also addressed, and attacked, concepts from philosophies popularly embraced in his days, such as Schopenhauer's notion of an aimless will or that of utilitarianism.

Utilitarians claim that what moves people is mainly the desire to be happy, to accumulate pleasure in their lives. But such a conception of happiness Nietzsche rejected as something limited to, and characteristic of, the bourgeois lifestyle of the English society, [] and instead put forth the idea that happiness is not an aim per se —it is instead a consequence of a successful pursuit of one's aims, of the overcoming of hurdles to one's actions—in other words, of the fulfillment of the will.

Related to his theory of the will to power is his speculation, which he did not deem final, [] regarding the reality of the physical world, including inorganic matter—that, like man's affections and impulses, the material world is also set by the dynamics of a form of the will to power.

At the core of his theory is a rejection of atomism —the idea that matter is composed of stable, indivisible units atoms. Likewise he rejected as a mere interpretation the view that the movement of bodies is ruled by inexorable laws of nature, positing instead that movement was governed by the power relations between bodies and forces.

Other than Aphorism 36 in Beyond Good and Evil, where he raised a question regarding will to power as being in the material world, they argue, it was only in his notes unpublished by himself , where he wrote about a metaphysical will to power.

And they also claim that Nietzsche directed his landlord to burn those notes in when he left Sils Maria for the last time.

However, a recent study Huang shows that although it is true that in Nietzsche wanted some of his notes burned, the 'burning' story indicates little about his project on the will to power, not only because only 11 'aphorisms' saved from the flames were ultimately incorporated into The Will to Power this book contains 'aphorisms' , but also because these abandoned notes mainly focus on topics such as critique of morality while touching upon the 'feeling of power' only once.

It is a purely physical concept, involving no supernatural reincarnation , but the return of beings in the same bodies.

Nietzsche first invokes the idea of eternal return in a parable in Section of The Gay Science , and also in the chapter "Of the Vision and the Riddle" in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , among other places.

To comprehend eternal recurrence in his thought, and to not merely come to peace with it but to embrace it, requires amor fati , "love of fate".

According to Heidegger, it is the burden imposed by the question of eternal recurrence—whether or not such a thing could possibly be true—that is so significant in modern thought: "The way Nietzsche here patterns the first communication of the thought of the 'greatest burden' [of eternal recurrence] makes it clear that this 'thought of thoughts' is at the same time 'the most burdensome thought.

Nietzsche posits not only that the universe is recurring over infinite time and space, but that the different versions of events that have occurred in the past may at one point or another take place again, hence "all configurations that have previously existed on this earth must yet meet".

Alexander Nehamas writes in Nietzsche: Life as Literature of three ways of seeing the eternal recurrence:.

Nehamas draws the conclusion that if individuals constitute themselves through their actions, then they can only maintain themselves in their current state by living in a recurrence of past actions Nehamas, Nietzsche's thought is the negation of the idea of a history of salvation.

Another concept important to an understanding of Nietzsche's thought is the Übermensch. Zarathustra's gift of the overman is given to a mankind not aware of the problem to which the overman is the solution.

The overman does not follow the morality of common people since that favors mediocrity but instead rises above the notion of good and evil and above the " herd ".

He wants a kind of spiritual evolution of self-awareness and overcoming of traditional views on morality and justice that stem from the superstition beliefs still deeply rooted or related to the notion of God and Christianity.

I teach you the overman. Man is something that shall be overcome. What have you done to overcome him? All beings so far have created something beyond themselves; and do you want to be the ebb of this great flood, and even go back to the beasts rather than overcome man?

What is ape to man? A laughing stock or painful embarrassment. And man shall be that to overman: a laughing stock or painful embarrassment.

You have made your way from worm to man, and much in you is still worm. Once you were apes, and even now, too, man is more ape than any ape The overman is the meaning of the earth.

Let your will say: the overman shall be the meaning of the earth Man is a rope, tied between beast and overman—a rope over an abyss Zarathustra contrasts the overman with the last man of egalitarian modernity most obvious example being democracy , an alternative goal humanity might set for itself.

The last man is possible only by mankind's having bred an apathetic creature who has no great passion or commitment, who is unable to dream, who merely earns his living and keeps warm.

This concept appears only in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , and is presented as a condition that would render the creation of the overman impossible.

Some have suggested that the notion of eternal return is related to the overman, since willing the eternal return of the same is a necessary step if the overman is to create new values, untainted by the spirit of gravity or asceticism.

Values involve a rank-ordering of things, and so are inseparable from approval and disapproval; yet it was dissatisfaction that prompted men to seek refuge in other-worldliness and embrace other-worldly values.

It could seem that the overman, in being devoted to any values at all, would necessarily fail to create values that did not share some bit of asceticism.

Willing the eternal recurrence is presented as accepting the existence of the low while still recognizing it as the low, and thus as overcoming the spirit of gravity or asceticism.

One must have the strength of the overman in order to will the eternal recurrence; that is, only the overman will have the strength to fully accept all of his past life, including his failures and misdeeds, and to truly will their eternal return.

This action nearly kills Zarathustra, for example, and most human beings cannot avoid other-worldliness because they really are sick, not because of any choice they made.

The Nazis tried to incorporate the concept into their ideology. After his death, Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche became the curator and editor of her brother's manuscripts.

She reworked Nietzsche's unpublished writings to fit her own German nationalist ideology while often contradicting or obfuscating Nietzsche's stated opinions, which were explicitly opposed to antisemitism and nationalism.

Through her published editions, Nietzsche's work became associated with fascism and Nazism ; [29] 20th century scholars contested this interpretation of his work, and corrected editions of his writings were soon made available.

Although Nietzsche has famously been misrepresented as a predecessor to Nazism, he criticized anti-Semitism, pan-Germanism and, to a lesser extent, nationalism.

Friedrich Nietzsche held a pessimistic view on modern society and culture. His views stand against the concept of popular culture. He believed the press and mass culture led to conformity and brought about mediocrity.

Nietzsche saw a lack of intellectual progress, leading to the decline of the human species. According to Nietzsche, individuals needed to overcome this form of mass culture.

He believed some people were able to become superior individuals through the use of will power. By rising above mass culture, society would produce higher, brighter and healthier human beings.

A trained philologist, Nietzsche had a thorough knowledge of Greek philosophy. He read Kant , Plato , Mill , Schopenhauer and Spir , [] who became his main opponents in his philosophy, and later Baruch Spinoza , whom he saw as his "precursor" in many respects [] but as a personification of the "ascetic ideal" in others.

However, Nietzsche referred to Kant as a "moral fanatic", Plato as "boring", Mill as a "blockhead", and of Spinoza he said: "How much of personal timidity and vulnerability does this masquerade of a sickly recluse betray?

Nietzsche's philosophy, while innovative and revolutionary, was indebted to many predecessors. While at Basel, Nietzsche offered lecture courses on pre-Platonic philosophers for several years, and the text of this lecture series has been characterized as a "lost link" in the development of his thought.

His symbolism of the world as "child play" marked by amoral spontaneity and lack of definite rules was appreciated by Nietzsche.

In his Egotism in German Philosophy , Santayana claimed that Nietzsche's whole philosophy was a reaction to Schopenhauer. Santayana wrote that Nietzsche's work was "an emendation of that of Schopenhauer.

The will to live would become the will to dominate; pessimism founded on reflection would become optimism founded on courage; the suspense of the will in contemplation would yield to a more biological account of intelligence and taste; finally in the place of pity and asceticism Schopenhauer's two principles of morals Nietzsche would set up the duty of asserting the will at all costs and being cruelly but beautifully strong.

These points of difference from Schopenhauer cover the whole philosophy of Nietzsche. In Nietzsche wrote an enthusiastic essay on his "favorite poet," Friedrich Hölderlin , mostly forgotten at that time.

Nietzsche's works did not reach a wide readership during his active writing career. However, in the influential Danish critic Georg Brandes aroused considerable excitement about Nietzsche through a series of lectures he gave at the University of Copenhagen.

In the years after Nietzsche's death in , his works became better known, and readers have responded to them in complex and sometimes controversial ways.

He had some following among left-wing Germans in the s; in — German conservatives wanted to ban his work as subversive.

During the late 19th century Nietzsche's ideas were commonly associated with anarchist movements and appear to have had influence within them, particularly in France and the United States.

Mencken produced the first book on Nietzsche in English in , The Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche , and in a book of translated paragraphs from Nietzsche, increasing knowledge of his philosophy in the United States.

Auden who wrote of Nietzsche in his New Year Letter released in in The Double Man : "O masterly debunker of our liberal fallacies…all your life you stormed, like your English forerunner Blake.

Writer on music Donald Mitchell notes that Gustav Mahler was "attracted to the poetic fire of Zarathustra, but repelled by the intellectual core of its writings.

Frederick Delius produced a piece of choral music, A Mass of Life , based on a text of Thus Spoke Zarathustra , while Richard Strauss who also based his Also sprach Zarathustra on the same book , was only interested in finishing "another chapter of symphonic autobiography.

Lawrence , Edith Södergran and Yukio Mishima. Nietzsche was an early influence on the poetry of Rainer Maria Rilke. Knut Hamsun counted Nietzsche, along with Strindberg and Dostoyevsky, as one of his primary influences.

Painter Giovanni Segantini was fascinated by Thus Spoke Zarathustra , and he drew an illustration for the first Italian translation of the book.

By World War I , Nietzsche had acquired a reputation as an inspiration for both right-wing German militarism and leftist politics.

Gordon [] and Martin Buber , who went so far as to extoll Nietzsche as a "creator" and "emissary of life". He also shared Nietzsche's view of tragedy.

Adorno [] can be seen in the popular Dialectic of Enlightenment. Adorno summed up Nietzsche's philosophy as expressing the "humane in a world in which humanity has become a sham.

Nietzsche's growing prominence suffered a severe setback when his works became closely associated with Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany.

Many political leaders of the twentieth century were at least superficially familiar with Nietzsche's ideas, although it is not always possible to determine whether they actually read his work.

It is debated among scholars whether Hitler read Nietzsche, although if he did his reading of him may not have been extensive.

Mussolini , [] [] Charles de Gaulle [] and Huey P. Newton [] read Nietzsche. Richard Nixon read Nietzsche with "curious interest", and his book Beyond Peace might have taken its title from Nietzsche's book Beyond Good and Evil which Nixon read beforehand.

A decade after World War II, there was a revival of Nietzsche's philosophical writings thanks to exhaustive translations and analyses by Walter Kaufmann and R.

Others, well known philosophers in their own right, wrote commentaries on Nietzsche's philosophy, including Martin Heidegger , who produced a four-volume study, and Lev Shestov , who wrote a book called Dostoyevski, Tolstoy and Nietzsche where he portrays Nietzsche and Dostoyevski as the "thinkers of tragedy".

Camus described Nietzsche as "the only artist to have derived the extreme consequences of an aesthetics of the absurd ".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Nietzsche disambiguation. German philosopher. Nietzsche in Basel , Switzerland , c.

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche. Röcken , Saxony , Prussia. University of Bonn Leipzig University. Main article: Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche.

Main article: Apollonian and Dionysian. Main article: Perspectivism. Main article: Master—slave morality.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main articles: God is dead and Nihilism. Main article: Will to power.

Main article: Eternal return. Main article: Übermensch. Main article: Library of Friedrich Nietzsche. Main article: Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche.

Main article: Friedrich Nietzsche bibliography. See also: List of works about Friedrich Nietzsche. Philosophy portal Religion portal Germany portal Biography portal.

The topic of "false origins" of ideas is also suggested in "The Four Great Errors" 3, and precisely about morality in such works as The Will to Power , p.

See Jensen and Heit , p. Pippin describes Nietzsche's views in The Persistence of Subjectivity , p. Whitlock, G. Enigma Books. However, as was noted in an earlier chapter, he made clear in My Struggle that reading for him had purely an instrumental purpose.

He read not for knowledge or enlightenment, but for confirmation of his own preconceptions. Zalta, Edward N.

MIT Press. Retrieved 29 September Oxford University Press. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 9 April University of Illinois Press.

Neue Zürcher Zeitung. Immerhin hat kein Geringerer als Friedrich Nietzsche, solange er wie Mainländer Schopenhauer verehrte, den philosophischen Mitjünger gewürdigt beider Lektüreerlebnis gleicht als Erweckung dem augustinischen "Nimm, lies" bis ins Detail.

University of Illinois Press, Journal of Nietzsche Studies Vol. Harlow, UK: Longman. Berlin: Bibliographisches Institut.

Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary 3rd ed. London: Longman. A History of Western Philosophy.

New York: Simon and Schuster. Retrieved 6 October Lanier 17 March Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.

Kaufmann and R. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Nietzsche's teaching: an interpretation of Thus spoke Zarathustra.

New Haven: Yale University Press. Friedrich Nietzsche: Herald of a New Era. Hazar Press. Wistrich , eds.

Nietzsche, Godfather of Fascism? Stanford News. Stanford News Service. Friedrich Nietzsche Winter ed. Human, All Too Human.

BBC Documentary. Retrieved 16 October — via Columbia College. The Good European: Nietzsche's work sites in word and image.

University of Chicago Press, Nietzsche: A Critical Life , p. Oxford University Press, Yale University Press, Jensen, Helmut Heit eds.

Archived from the original on 24 November History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences. Nietzsche: A Critical Life. New York: Oxford University Press.

Nietzsche as a Scholar of Antiquity. Note that some authors incl. Deussen and Montinari mistakenly claim that Nietzsche became a Swiss citizen in order to become university professor.

Erinnerungen an Friedrich Nietzsche. Leipzig: F. Journal of Medical Biography. Nietzsche and the Transcendental Tradition.

Project Gutenberg. Also available via Book Rags. Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography , trans. Journal of Nietzsche Studies — Plett — Schmidseder.

Walter de Gruyter. The Nietzsche Channel. Retrieved 27 November Retrieved 25 May The Tico Times Costa Rica. Friedrich Nietzsche. Eine Einführung in German.

Berlin-New York: De Gruyter ; — [] Friedrich Nietzsche in French. Paris: PUF. The Cambridge Companion to Nietzsche.

Cambridge University Press. Ausgewählte Korrespondenz. Retrieved 24 August Ich habe Kaiphas in Ketten legen lassen; auch bin ich voriges Jahr von den deutschen Ärzten auf eine sehr langwierige Weise gekreuzigt worden.

Wilhelm, Bismarck und alle Antisemiten abgeschafft. Viking Press. Nietzsche Chronicle. Dartmouth College.

Retrieved 28 September Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography. New York, New York: W. Dictionary of Art Historians.

S2CID : Hospital Medicine. The Legend of Nietzsche's Syphilis. Westport: Greenwood Press. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica.

Acta Neurologica Belgica. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy. Mercury Poisoning: The Undiagnosed Epidemic.

Volz , p. Nietzsche: A Very Short Introduction. The Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Abingdon: Routledge. The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. The Concise encyclopedia of western philosophy 3rd ed.

London: Routledge. The Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. Wilder Publications. Friedrich Nietzsche: Biographie 1.

Munich: Carl Hanser. Transaction Publishers. Archived from the original on 24 June Retrieved 16 August Nietzsche's ring Herbarz Polski Kaspra Niesieckiego S.

Bobrowicza [ Polish armorial of Kasper Niesiecki S. Heraldic Family Bobrowicz, Lipsk — herb Radwan t.

Archived from the original on 17 August Retrieved 17 August In , the Polish writer Bernhard Scharlitt in the spirit of Polish patriotism wrote an article about the Nietzsche family.

In Herbarz Polski, a genealogy of Polish nobility, he had come across a note about a family named 'Nicki,' who could be traced back to Radwan.

A member of this family named Gotard Nietzsche had left Poland for Prussia, and his descendants had eventually settled in Saxony around the year Nietzsche-Studien — Charles Q.

Nietzsche's Women: Beyond the Whip. Zarathustra's secret: the interior life of Friedrich Nietzsche.

Nietzsche and Jewish Culture. Paradoxes and Lessons of a Hard Case". The Journal of Modern History. Young Nietzsche: Becoming a Genius.

New York: The Free Press. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Philosophers Behaving Badly. London: Peter Owen. The Review of Politics.

The Interior Life of Friedrich Nietzsche". Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews. Nietzsche on Ethics and Politics.

Friedrich Nietzsche was also a pretty decent classical composer". Classic FM. Wayne State University Press. Retrieved 3 January Friedrich Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography.

Ideas About Art. Archived from the original on 14 August Patterns of Culture. Foucault's Nietzschean Genealogy.

Imperium: The Philosophy of History and Politics. Nietzsche: Naturalism and Interpretation. From Hegel to Existentialism.

Alasdair MacIntyre. Tradition in the ethics of Alasdair MacIntyre. Amazon Online Web Services. Archived from the original PDF on 10 May University of Kentucky.

From Shakespeare to existentialism. On the Genealogy of Morals. First essay, section Ecce Homo. Chapter on The Case of Wagner, section 2.

Beyond Good and Evil. Nietzsche shows rather convincingly that this pattern of assessment was dominant in ancient Mediterranean culture the Homeric world, later Greek and Roman society, and even much of ancient philosophical ethics.

It focuses its negative evaluation evil on violations of the interests or well-being of others—and consequently its positive evaluation good on altruistic concern for their welfare.

Such a morality needs to have universalistic pretensions: if it is to promote and protect the welfare of all, its restrictions and injunctions must apply to everyone equally.

It is thereby especially amenable to ideas of basic human equality, starting from the thought that each person has an equal claim to moral consideration and respect.

BGE The exact nature of this alleged revolt is a matter of ongoing scholarly controversy in recent literature, see Bittner ; Reginster ; Migotti ; Ridley ; May 41—54; Leiter —; Janaway 90—, —9; Owen 78—89; Wallace ; Anderson ; Poellner , but the broad outline is clear enough.

Afterward, via negation of the concept of evil, the new concept of goodness emerges, rooted in altruistic concern of a sort that would inhibit evil actions.

For Nietzsche, then, our morality amounts to a vindictive effort to poison the happiness of the fortunate GM III, 14 , instead of a high-minded, dispassionate, and strictly rational concern for others.

That said, Nietzsche offers two strands of evidence sufficient to give pause to an open minded reader. Second, Nietzsche observes with confidence-shaking perspicacity how frequently indignant moralistic condemnation itself, whether arising in serious criminal or public matters or from more private personal interactions, can detach itself from any measured assessment of the wrong and devolve into a free-floating expression of vengeful resentment against some real or imagined perpetrator.

The First Treatise does little, however, to suggest why inhabitants of a noble morality might be at all moved by such condemnations, generating a question about how the moral revaluation could have succeeded.

The Second Treatise, about guilt and bad conscience, offers some materials toward an answer to this puzzle. Nietzsche begins from the insight that guilt bears a close conceptual connection to the notion of debt.

The pure idea of moralized guilt answers this need by tying any wrong action inextricably and uniquely to a blamable agent.

As we saw, the impulse to assign blame was central to the ressentiment that motivated the moral revaluation of values, according to the First Treatise.

Thus, insofar as people even nobles become susceptible to such moralized guilt, they might also become vulnerable to the revaluation, and Nietzsche offers some speculations about how and why this might happen GM II, 16— These criticisms have attracted an increasingly subtle secondary literature; see Reginster , as well as Williams a, b , Ridley , May 55—80 , Leiter —44 , Risse , , Janaway —42 , and Owen 91— In such cases, free-floating guilt can lose its social and moral point and develop into something hard to distinguish from a pathological desire for self-punishment.

Ascetic self-denial is a curious phenomenon indeed, on certain psychological assumptions, like descriptive psychological egoism or ordinary hedonism, it seems incomprehensible , but it is nevertheless strikingly widespread in the history of religious practice.

One obvious route to such a value system, though far from the only one, is for the moralist to identify a set of drives and desires that people are bound to have—perhaps rooted in their human or animal nature—and to condemn those as evil; anti-sensualist forms of asceticism follow this path.

As Nietzsche emphasizes, purified guilt is naturally recruited as a tool for developing asceticism. Suffering is an inevitable part of the human condition, and the ascetic strategy is to interpret such suffering as punishment , thereby connecting it to the notion of guilt.

Despite turning her own suffering against her, the move paradoxically offers certain advantages to the agent—not only does her suffering gain an explanation and moral justification, but her own activity can be validated by being enlisted on the side of punishment self-castigation :.

For every sufferer instinctively seeks a cause for his suffering; still more precisely, a perpetrator, still more specifically, a guilty perpetrator who is susceptible to suffering,.

GM III, The principal bow stroke the ascetic priest allowed himself to cause the human soul to resound with wrenching and ecstatic music of every kind was executed—everyone knows this—by exploiting the feeling of guilt.

Consider, for example, the stance of Schopenhauerian pessimism, according to which human life and the world have negative absolute value.

From that standpoint, the moralist can perfectly well allow that ascetic valuation is self-punishing and even destructive for the moral agent, but such conclusions are entirely consistent with—indeed, they seem like warranted responses to —the pessimistic evaluation.

That is, if life is an inherent evil and nothingness is a concrete improvement over existence, then diminishing or impairing life through asceticism yields a net enhancement of value.

While asceticism imposes self-discipline on the sick practitioner, it simultaneously makes the person sicker, plunging her into intensified inner conflict GM III, 15, 20— While this section has focused on the Genealogy , it is worth noting that its three studies are offered only as examples of Nietzschean skepticism about conventional moral ideas.

Nietzsche tried out many different arguments against pity and compassion beginning already in Human, All-too-human and continuing to the end of his productive life—for discussion, see Reginster , Janaway forthcoming , and Nussbaum Nietzsche resists the hedonistic doctrine that pleasure and pain lie at the basis of all value claims, which would be the most natural way to defend such a presupposition.

From that point of view, the morality of compassion looks both presumptuous and misguided. It is misguided both because it runs the risk of robbing individuals of their opportunity to make something positive individually meaningful out of their suffering, and because the global devaluation of suffering as such dismisses in advance the potentially valuable aspects of our general condition as vulnerable and finite creatures GS ; compare Williams 82— For him, however, human beings remain valuing creatures in the last analysis.

It follows that no critique of traditional values could be practically effective without suggesting replacement values capable of meeting our needs as valuers see GS ; Anderson , esp.

Nietzsche thought it was the job of philosophers to create such values BGE , so readers have long and rightly expected to find an account of value creation in his works.

It is common, if not altogether standard, to explain values by contrasting them against mere desires. Consider: If I become convinced that something I valued is not in fact valuable, that discovery is normally sufficient to provoke me to revise my value, suggesting that valuing must be responsive to the world; by contrast, subjective desires often persist even in the face of my judgment that their objects are not properly desirable, or are unattainable; see the entries on value theory and desire.

We [contemplatives] … are those who really continually fashion something that had not been there before: the whole eternally growing world of valuations, colors, accents, perspectives, scales, affirmations, and negations.

Only we have created the world that concerns man! Some scholars take the value creation passages as evidence that Nietzsche was an anti-realist about value, so that his confident evaluative judgments should be read as efforts at rhetorical persuasion rather than objective claims Leiter , or relatedly they suggest that Nietzsche could fruitfully be read as a skeptic, so that such passages should be evaluated primarily for their practical effect on readers Berry ; see also Leiter Others Hussain take Nietzsche to be advocating a fictionalist posture, according to which values are self-consciously invented contributions to a pretense through which we can satisfy our needs as valuing creatures, even though all evaluative claims are strictly speaking false.

First, while a few passages appear to offer a conception of value creation as some kind of legislative fiat e. Second, a great many of the passages esp.

GS 78, , , , connect value creation to artistic creation, suggesting that Nietzsche took artistic creation and aesthetic value as an important paradigm or metaphor for his account of values and value creation more generally.

While some Soll attack this entire idea as confused, other scholars have called on these passages as support for either fictionalist or subjective realist interpretations.

In addition to showing that not all value creation leads to results that Nietzsche would endorse, this observation leads to interesting questions—e.

If so, what differentiates the two modes? Can we say anything about which is to be preferred? Nietzsche praises many different values, and in the main, he does not follow the stereotypically philosophical strategy of deriving his evaluative judgments from one or a few foundational principles.

A well-known passage appears near the opening of the late work, The Antichrist :. What is good? Everything that heightens the feeling of power in man, the will to power, power itself.

That doctrine seems to include the proposal that creatures like us or more broadly: all life, or even all things period aim at the enhancement of their power—and then further, that this fact entails that enhanced power is good for us or for everything.

The same conception has been developed by Paul Katsafanas , who argues that, qua agents, we are ineluctably committed to valuing power because a Reginster-style will to power is a constitutive condition on acting at all.

His account thereby contributes to the constitutivist strategy in ethics pioneered by Christine Korsgaard and David Velleman , On this view, what Nietzsche values is power understood as a tendency toward growth, strength, domination, or expansion Schacht —88; Hussain Leiter is surely right to raise worries about the Millian reconstruction.

Nietzsche apparently takes us to be committed to a wide diversity of first order aims, which raises prima facie doubts about the idea that for him all willing really takes power as its first-order aim as the Millian argument would require.

It is not clear that this view can avoid the objection rooted in the possibility of pessimism i. Given his engagement with Schopenhauer, Nietzsche should have been sensitive to the worry.

I want to learn more and more to see as beautiful what is necessary in things; then I shall be one of those who make things beautiful.

Amor fati : let that be my love henceforth! I do not want to wage war against what is ugly. I do not want to accuse; I do not even want to accuse those who accuse.

Looking away shall be my only negation. And all in all and on the whole: someday I wish to be only a Yes-sayer. GS Let our brilliance make them look dark.

No, let us not become darker ourselves on their account, like all those who punish…. Let us look away. After that penultimate section, Nietzsche quotes the first section of Thus Spoke Zarathustra , which returns repeatedly to the same theme of affirmation see, e.

That critique is directed in large measure against aspects of morality that turn the agent against herself—or more broadly, against the side of Christianity that condemns earthly existence, demanding that we repent of it as the price of admission to a different, superior plane of being.

What is wrong with these views, according to Nietzsche, is that they negate our life, instead of affirming it.

The affirmation of life can be framed as the rejection of nihilism, so understood. For Nietzsche, that involves a two-sided project: it should both undermine values by reference to which the world could not honestly be affirmed, while also articulating the values exemplified by life and the world that make them affirmable.

Readers interested in this issue about the compatibility of Nietzschean affirmation with Nietzschean critique should also consult Huddleston, forthcoming, a, which reaches a more diffident conclusion than this entry.

If we are to affirm our life and the world, however, we had better be honest about what they are really like. Endorsing things under some illusory Panglossian description is not affirmation, but self-delusion.

How much truth does a spirit endure , how much truth does it dare? More and more that became for me the real measure of value.

EH Pref. Some texts present truthfulness as a kind of personal commitment—one tied to particular projects and a way of life in which Nietzsche happens to have invested.

For example, in GS 2 Nietzsche expresses bewilderment in the face of people who do not value honesty:. I do not want to believe it although it is palpable: the great majority of people lacks an intellectual conscience.

No, life has not disappointed me… ever since the day when the great liberator came to me: the idea that life could be an experiment for the seeker for knowledge….

Indeed, he assigns the highest cultural importance to the experiment testing whether such a life can be well lived:.

A thinker is now that being in whom the impulse for truth and those life-preserving errors now clash for their first fight, after the impulse for truth has proved to be also a life-preserving power.

Compared to the significance of this fight, everything else is a matter of indifference: the ultimate question about the conditions of life has been posed here, and we confront the first attempt to answer the question by experiment.

To what extent can truth endure incorporation? That is the question; that is the experiment. A second strand of texts emphasizes connections between truthfulness and courage , thereby valorizing honesty as the manifestation of an overall virtuous character marked by resoluteness, determination, and spiritual strength.

Such wishful thinking is not only cognitively corrupt, for Nietzsche, but a troubling manifestation of irresolution and cowardice.

Finally, it is worth noting that even when Nietzsche raises doubts about this commitment to truthfulness, his very questions are clearly motivated by the central importance of that value.

But even in the face of such worries, Nietzsche does not simply give up on truthfulness. But if truthfulness is a core value for Nietzsche, he is nevertheless famous for insisting that we also need illusion to live well.

From the beginning of his career to the end, he insisted on the irreplaceable value of art precisely because of its power to ensconce us in illusion.

Art and artistry carry value for Nietzsche both as a straightforward first-order matter, and also as a source of higher-order lessons about how to create value more generally.

But Nietzsche is just as invested in the first-order evaluative point that what makes a life admirable includes its aesthetic features.

One last point deserves special mention. Significantly, the opposition here is not just the one emphasized in The Birth of Tragedy —that the substantive truth about the world might be disturbing enough to demand some artistic salve that helps us cope.

Nietzsche raises a more specific worry about the deleterious effects of the virtue of honesty—about the will to truth, rather than what is true—and artistry is wheeled in to alleviate them, as well:.

If we had not welcomed the arts and invented this kind of cult of the untrue, then the realization of general untruth and mendaciousness that now comes to us through science—the realization that delusion and error are conditions of human knowledge and sensation—would be utterly unbearable.

Honesty would lead to nausea and suicide. But now there is a counterforce against our honesty that helps us to avoid such consequences: art as the good will to appearance.

Those views would entail that the basic conditions of cognition prevent our ever knowing things as they really are, independently of us see Anderson , ; Hussain ; and the entry on Friedrich Albert Lange.

But while those are the immediate allusions, Nietzsche also endorses more general ideas with similar implications—e.

What is most important, however, is the structure of the thought in GS So it seems that the values Nietzsche endorses conflict with one another, and that very fact is crucial to the value they have for us Anderson — This strand of thought continues to receive strong emphasis in recent interpretations—see, e.

As Reginster shows, what opposes Nietzschean freedom of spirit is fanaticism , understood as a vehement commitment to some faith or value-set given from without, which is motivated by a need to believe in something because one lacks the self-determination to think for oneself GS A variety of scholars have recently explored the resources of this line of thought in Nietzsche; Anderson surveys the literature, and notable contributions include Ridley b , Pippin , , Reginster , Katsafanas b, , , , and especially the papers in Gemes and May We have seen that Nietzsche promotes a number of different values.

In some cases, these values reinforce one another. For this alone is fitting for a philosopher. We have no right to be single in anything: we may neither err nor hit upon the truth singly.

GM Pref. For example, the account of honesty and artistry explored in sections 3. As the passage makes clear, however, Nietzschean perspectives are themselves rooted in affects and the valuations to which affects give rise , and in his mind, the ability to deploy a variety of perspectives is just as important for our practical and evaluative lives as it is for cognitive life.

Meanwhile, Nietzschean pluralism has been a major theme of several landmark Nietzsche studies e. From his pluralistic point of view, it is a selling point, not a drawback, that he has many other value commitments, and that they interact in complex patterns to support, inform, and sometimes to oppose or limit one another, rather than being parts of a single, hierarchically ordered, systematic axiology.

A probing investigation into the psyche was a leading preoccupation for Nietzsche throughout his career, and this aspect of his thought has rightly been accorded central importance across a long stretch of the reception, all the way from Kaufmann to recent work by Pippin , Katsafanas , and others.

For psychology is once again on the path to the fundamental problems. On the positive side, Nietzsche is equally keen to detail the psychological conditions he thinks would be healthier for both individuals and cultures see, e.

Aside from its instrumental support for these other projects, Nietzsche pursues psychological inquiry for its own sake, and apparently also for the sake of the self-knowledge that it intrinsically involves GM III, 9; GS Pref.

Debate begins with the object of psychology itself, the psyche, self, or soul. This apparent conflict in the texts has encouraged competing interpretations, with commentators emphasizing the strands in Nietzsche to which they have more philosophical sympathy.

In a diametrically opposed direction from those first three, Sebastian Gardner insists that, while Nietzsche was sometimes tempted by skepticism about a self which can stand back from the solicitations of inclination and control them, his own doctrines about the creation of value and self-overcoming in fact commit him to something like a Kantian transcendental ego, despite his protestations to the contrary.

These attitude types have been intensively studied in recent work see esp. Richardson and Katsafanas b, , ; see also Anderson a, Clark and Dudrick While much remains controversial, it is helpful to think of drives as dispositions toward general patterns of activity; they aim at activity of the relevant sort e.

Affects are emotional states that combine a receptive and felt responsiveness to the world with a tendency toward a distinctive pattern of reaction—states like love, hate, anger, fear, joy, etc.

But what about a personal-level self to serve as the owner of such attitudes? Here Nietzsche alludes to traditional rational psychology, and its basic inference from the pure unity of consciousness to the simplicity of the soul, and thence to its indivisibility, indestructibility, and immortality.

As he notes, these moves treat the soul as an indivisible hence incorruptible atom, or monad. Nietzsche thus construes the psyche, or self, as an emergent structure arising from such sub-personal constituents when those stand in the appropriate relations , thereby reversing the traditional account, which treats sub-personal attitudes as mere modes, or ways of being, proper to a preexisting unitary mental substance— see Anderson a for an attempt to flesh out the picture; see also Gemes ; Hales and Welshon — Moreover, since the drives and affects that constitute it are individuated largely in terms of what and how they represent , the psychology needed to investigate the soul must be an interpretive, and not merely and strictly a causal, form of inquiry see Pippin While this suggestion, and even the very idea of self-creation, has remained controversial both textually and philosophically see, e.

Most of us this entry included are defeated by the bewildering richness of the subject matter and content ourselves with a few observations of special relevance to our other purposes.

Perhaps Alexander Nehamas 13—41 comes closest to meeting the explanatory challenge by highlighting the key underlying fact that defeats our interpretive efforts—the seemingly endless variety of stylistic effects that Nietzsche deploys.

Most philosophers write treatises or scholarly articles, governed by a precisely articulated thesis for which they present a sustained and carefully defended argument.

Many are divided into short, numbered sections, which only sometimes have obvious connections to nearby sections.

While the sections within a part are often thematically related see, e. To the natural complaint that such telegraphic treatment courts misunderstanding, he replies that.

One does not only wish to be understood when one writes; one wishes just as surely not to be understood. Thus Spoke Zarathustra is unified by following the career of a central character, but the unity is loose and picaresque-like—a sequence of episodes which arrives at a somewhat equivocal or at a minimum, at a controversial conclusion that imposes only weak narrative unity on the whole.

Lichtenberg wrote his fragments for himself rather than the public, but the strategies he developed nevertheless made a serious impact.

His aphorisms revealed how the form could be extended from its essentially pedagogical origins providing compressed, memorable form for some principle or observation into a sustained, exploratory mode of reasoning with oneself.

Occasionally, these aphorisms are even set up as mini-dialogues:. But the reader should take care, for not every Nietzschean aphorism is an experiment, and not every short section is an aphorism.

Indeed, many sections build up to an aphorism, which enters only as a proper part included within the section, perhaps serving as its culmination or a kind of summative conclusion rather than experiment.

But the first section itself is not simply one long aphorism. Instead, the aphorism that requires so much interpretation is the compressed, high-impact arrival point of GM III, 1; the section begins by noting a series of different things that the ascetic ideal has meant, listed one after another and serving as a kind of outline for the Treatise, before culminating in the taut aphorism:.

That the ascetic ideal has meant so much to man, however, is an expression of the basic fact of the human will, its horror vacui : it needs a goal ,—and it would rather will nothingness than not will.

GM III, 1.

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