Jesus Christ Quick Links
Die meisten Forscher halten 30 für Jesu wahrscheinliches Todesjahr, weil Paulus von Tarsus zwischen 32 und 35 Christ wurde, nachdem er die Urchristen eine. Der Text repräsentiert lukanische Theologie: Der Evangelist wollte zeigen, wie man auch ohne eigene Vision Christ werden kann. Bibelauslegung, Eucharistie. Jesus Christ Superstar ist eine Rockoper, die am Oktober im Mark Hellinger Theater in New York City uraufgeführt wurde. Die Musik wurde von dem. Jesus Christ Superstar ist ein US-amerikanisches dramatisches Filmmusical von Norman Jewison aus dem Jahr und eine Verfilmung der gleichnamigen. given, not to the one who was saved, but to the Lord Jesus Christ, the only Savior; that man could boast of nothing, that his works were but filthy rags, that eternal.
Offizielle Internetseite der Kirche Jesu Christi der Heiligen der Letzten Tage Botschaften über Christus, die Ihre Seele erbauen und den Geist einladen. In I am Jesus Christ sollen PC-Spieler aus der Ich-Perspektive als Sohn Gottes antreten, Gutes tun und gegen Satan kämpfen können. Unklar. given, not to the one who was saved, but to the Lord Jesus Christ, the only Savior; that man could boast of nothing, that his works were but filthy rags, that eternal.
Early the next morning, the chief priests and scribes lead Jesus away into their council. During the trials Jesus speaks very little, mounts no defense, and gives very infrequent and indirect answers to the priests' questions, prompting an officer to slap him.
In Matthew Jesus' unresponsiveness leads Caiaphas to ask him, "Have you no answer? In Matthew and Luke, Jesus' answer is more ambiguous:   in Matthew he responds, "You have said so", and in Luke he says, "You say that I am".
The Jewish elders take Jesus to Pilate's Court and ask the Roman governor, Pontius Pilate , to judge and condemn Jesus for various allegations, accusing him of blasphemy , perverting the nation, forbidding the payment of tribute, inciting sedition against Rome , sorcery , claiming to be the King of the Jews, the Son of God, and a savior to the world.
In John Jesus states, "My kingdom is not from this world", but he does not unequivocally deny being the King of the Jews. Herod and his soldiers mock Jesus, put an expensive robe on him to make him look like a king, and return him to Pilate,  who then calls together the Jewish elders and announces that he has "not found this man guilty".
Observing a Passover custom of the time, Pilate allows one prisoner chosen by the crowd to be released. They beat and taunt him before taking him to Calvary ,  also called Golgotha, for crucifixion.
Jesus' crucifixion is described in all four canonical gospels. After the trials, Jesus is led to Calvary carrying his cross ; the route traditionally thought to have been taken is known as the Via Dolorosa.
The three Synoptic Gospels indicate that Simon of Cyrene assists him, having been compelled by the Romans to do so. According to Matthew and Mark, he refuses it.
The soldiers then crucify Jesus and cast lots for his clothes. Two convicted thieves are crucified along with Jesus.
In Matthew and Mark, both thieves mock Jesus. In Luke, one of them rebukes Jesus, while the other defends him.
In John, Mary, the mother of Jesus, and the beloved disciple were at the crucifixion. Jesus tells the beloved disciple to take care of his mother John — The Roman soldiers break the two thieves' legs a procedure designed to hasten death in a crucifixion , but they do not break those of Jesus, as he is already dead John In John , one soldier pierces Jesus' side with a lance , and blood and water flow out.
In Matthew —54 , an earthquake breaks open tombs. On the same day, Joseph of Arimathea , with Pilate's permission and with Nicodemus ' help, removes Jesus' body from the cross , wraps him in a clean cloth, and buries him in his new rock-hewn tomb.
Mary Magdalene alone in the Gospel of John, but accompanied by other women in the Synoptics goes to Jesus' tomb on Sunday morning and is surprised to find it empty.
Despite Jesus' teaching, the disciples had not understood that Jesus would rise again. Jesus' ascension into Heaven is described in Luke —53 , Acts —11 and mentioned in 1 Timothy In the Acts of the Apostles , forty days after the Resurrection, as the disciples look on, "he was lifted up, and a cloud took him out of their sight".
The Acts of the Apostles describes several appearances of Jesus after his Ascension. In Acts , Stephen gazes into heaven and sees "Jesus standing at the right hand of God" just before his death.
After Jesus' life, his followers, as described in the first chapters of the Acts of the Apostles , were all Jews either by birth or conversion , for which the biblical term " proselyte " is used,  and referred to by historians as Jewish Christians.
The early Gospel message was spread orally , probably in Aramaic ,  but almost immediately also in Greek.
After the conversion of Paul the Apostle , he claimed the title of "Apostle to the Gentiles".
Paul's influence on Christian thinking is said to be more significant than that of any other New Testament author. Numerous quotations in the New Testament and other Christian writings of the first centuries, indicate that early Christians generally used and revered the Hebrew Bible the Tanakh as religious text , mostly in the Greek Septuagint or Aramaic Targum translations.
Early Christians wrote many religious works, including the ones included in the canon of the New Testament. The canonical texts, which have become the main sources used by historians to try to understand the historical Jesus and sacred texts within Christianity, were probably written between 50 and AD.
Prior to the Enlightenment , the gospels were usually regarded as accurate historical accounts, but since then scholars have emerged who question the reliability of the gospels and draw a distinction between the Jesus described in the gospels and the Jesus of history.
Approaches to the historical reconstruction of the life of Jesus have varied from the "maximalist" approaches of the 19th century, in which the gospel accounts were accepted as reliable evidence wherever it is possible, to the "minimalist" approaches of the early 20th century, where hardly anything about Jesus was accepted as historical.
A Roman prefect , rather than a client king, ruled the land. As an exception, the prefect came to Jerusalem during religious festivals, when religious and patriotic enthusiasm sometimes inspired unrest or uprisings.
Gentile lands surrounded the Jewish territories of Judea and Galilee , but Roman law and practice allowed Jews to remain separate legally and culturally.
Galilee was evidently prosperous, and poverty was limited enough that it did not threaten the social order.
This was the era of Hellenistic Judaism , which combined Jewish religious tradition with elements of Hellenistic Greek culture.
Hellenistic Judaism also existed in Jerusalem during the Second Temple Period , where there was conflict between Hellenizers and traditionalists sometimes called Judaizers.
The Hebrew Bible was translated from Biblical Hebrew and Biblical Aramaic into Jewish Koine Greek ; the Targum translations into Aramaic were also generated during this era, both due to the decline of knowledge of Hebrew.
Jews based their faith and religious practice on the Torah , five books said to have been given by God to Moses.
The three prominent religious parties were the Pharisees , the Essenes , and the Sadducees. Together these parties represented only a small fraction of the population.
Most Jews looked forward to a time that God would deliver them from their pagan rulers, possibly through war against the Romans. New Testament scholars face a formidable challenge when they analyze the canonical Gospels.
Mark, which is most likely the earliest written gospel, has been considered for many decades the most historically accurate.
The non-canonical Gospel of Thomas might be an independent witness to many of Jesus' parables and aphorisms. For example, Thomas confirms that Jesus blessed the poor and that this saying circulated independently before being combined with similar sayings in the Q source.
Early non-Christian sources that attest to the historical existence of Jesus include the works of the historians Josephus and Tacitus.
Scholars generally consider Tacitus' reference to the execution of Jesus to be both authentic and of historical value as an independent Roman source.
Non-Christian sources are valuable in two ways. First, they show that even neutral or hostile parties never show any doubt that Jesus actually existed.
Second, they present a rough picture of Jesus that is compatible with that found in the Christian sources: that Jesus was a teacher, had a reputation as a miracle worker, had a brother James, and died a violent death.
Archaeology helps scholars better understand Jesus' social world. Jesus was a Galilean Jew,  born around the beginning of the 1st century, who died in 30 or 33 AD in Judea.
The gospels offer several indications concerning the year of Jesus' birth. Matthew associates the birth of Jesus with the reign of Herod the Great , who died around 4 BC, and Luke mentions that Herod was on the throne shortly before the birth of Jesus,   although this gospel also associates the birth with the Census of Quirinius which took place ten years later.
The date range for Jesus' ministry have been estimated using several different approaches. A number of approaches have been used to estimate the year of the crucifixion of Jesus.
Most scholars agree that he died in 30 or 33 AD. The dates for Paul's conversion and ministry can be determined by analyzing the Pauline epistles and the Acts of the Apostles.
Scholars have reached a limited consensus on the basics of Jesus' life. Many scholars agree that Joseph, Jesus' father, died before Jesus began his ministry.
Joseph is not mentioned at all in the gospels during Jesus' ministry. Joseph's death would explain why in Mark , Jesus' neighbors refer to Jesus as the "son of Mary" sons were usually identified by their fathers.
According to Theissen and Merz, it is common for extraordinary charismatic leaders , such as Jesus, to come into conflict with their ordinary families.
According to E. Sanders, the birth narratives in Matthew and Luke are the clearest case of invention in the Gospel narratives of Jesus' life.
Both accounts have Jesus born in Bethlehem , in accordance with Jewish salvation history, and both have him growing up in Nazareth.
But Sanders points that the two Gospels report completely different and irreconcilable explanations for how that happened.
Luke's account of a census in which everyone returned to their ancestral cities is not plausible. Matthew's account is more plausible, but the story reads as though it was invented to identify Jesus as like a new Moses , and the historian Josephus reports Herod the Great's brutality without ever mentioning that he massacred little boys.
Sanders says that the genealogies of Jesus are based not on historical information but on the authors' desire to show that Jesus was the universal Jewish savior.
Most modern scholars consider Jesus' baptism to be a definite historical fact, along with his crucifixion. Dunn states that they "command almost universal assent" and "rank so high on the 'almost impossible to doubt or deny' scale of historical facts" that they are often the starting points for the study of the historical Jesus.
Most scholars hold that Jesus lived in Galilee and Judea and did not preach or study elsewhere. According to Ehrman, Jesus taught that a coming kingdom was everyone's proper focus, not anything in this life.
According to Gerd Theissen and Annette Merz, these teaching sessions include authentic teachings of Jesus, but the scenes were invented by the respective evangelists to frame these teachings, which had originally been recorded without context.
First, he attributed them to the faith of those healed. Second, he connected them to end times prophecy. Jesus chose twelve disciples  the "Twelve" , evidently as an apocalyptic message.
In Ehrman's view, no Christians would have invented a line from Jesus, promising rulership to the disciple who betrayed him.
While others sometimes respond to Jesus with complete faith, his disciples are puzzled and doubtful. Sanders says that Jesus' mission was not about repentance , although he acknowledges that this opinion is unpopular.
He argues that repentance appears as a strong theme only in Luke, that repentance was John the Baptist 's message, and that Jesus' ministry would not have been scandalous if the sinners he ate with had been repentant.
Jesus taught that an apocalyptic figure, the " Son of Man ", would soon come on clouds of glory to gather the elect, or chosen ones Mark —27, Matthew —31, Luke — He referred to himself as a " son of man " in the colloquial sense of "a person", but scholars do not know whether he also meant himself when he referred to the heavenly "Son of Man".
The title Christ , or Messiah , indicates that Jesus' followers believed him to be the anointed heir of King David , whom some Jews expected to save Israel.
The Gospels refer to him not only as a Messiah but in the absolute form as "the Messiah" or, equivalently, "the Christ".
In early Judaism, this absolute form of the title is not found, but only phrases such as "his Messiah". The tradition is ambiguous enough to leave room for debate as to whether Jesus defined his eschatological role as that of the Messiah.
Sanders associates it with Jesus' prophecy that the Temple would be totally demolished. His words as recorded in the Synoptic gospels and Paul's First Letter to the Corinthians do not entirely agree, but this symbolic meal appears to have pointed to Jesus' place in the coming Kingdom of God when very probably Jesus knew he was about to be killed, although he may have still hoped that God might yet intervene.
The Gospels say that Jesus was betrayed to the authorities by a disciple, and many scholars consider this report to be highly reliable.
After Jesus' death, his followers said he rose from the dead, although exact details of their experiences are unclear. The Gospel reports contradict each other, possibly suggesting competition among those claiming to have seen him first rather than deliberate fraud.
Michael White suggests that inconsistencies in the Gospels reflect differences in the agendas of their unknown authors. Modern research on the historical Jesus has not led to a unified picture of the historical figure, partly because of the variety of academic traditions represented by the scholars.
Jesus is seen as the founder of, in the words of Sanders, a '"renewal movement within Judaism. A disagreement in contemporary research is whether Jesus was apocalyptic.
Most scholars conclude that he was an apocalyptic preacher, like John the Baptist and Paul the Apostle. In contrast, certain prominent North American scholars, such as Burton Mack and John Dominic Crossan, advocate for a non-eschatological Jesus, one who is more of a Cynic sage than an apocalyptic preacher.
Since the 18th century, scholars have occasionally put forth that Jesus was a political national messiah, but the evidence for this portrait is negligible.
Likewise, the proposal that Jesus was a Zealot does not fit with the earliest strata of the Synoptic tradition. Jesus grew up in Galilee and much of his ministry took place there.
Modern scholars agree that Jesus was a Jew of 1st-century Palestine. The New Testament gives no description of the physical appearance of Jesus before his death—it is generally indifferent to racial appearances and does not refer to the features of the people it mentions.
The Christ myth theory is the hypothesis that Jesus of Nazareth never existed; or if he did, that he had virtually nothing to do with the founding of Christianity and the accounts in the gospels.
Apart from his own disciples and followers, the Jews of Jesus' day generally rejected him as the Messiah, as do the great majority of Jews today.
Christian theologians, ecumenical councils , reformers and others have written extensively about Jesus over the centuries.
Christian sects and schisms have often been defined or characterized by their descriptions of Jesus. Meanwhile, Manichaeans , Gnostics , Muslims, Druzes ,   Baha'is, and others have found prominent places for Jesus in their religions.
Jesus is the central figure of Christianity. These documents outline the key beliefs held by Christians about Jesus, including his divinity, humanity, and earthly life, and that he is the Christ and the Son of God.
The New Testament states that the resurrection of Jesus is the foundation of the Christian faith 1 Corinthians — Most Christians believe that Jesus was both human and the Son of God.
However, the doctrine of the Trinity is not universally accepted among Christians. Christians revere not only Jesus himself, but also his name.
Devotions to the Holy Name of Jesus go back to the earliest days of Christianity. A central tenet of Judaism is the absolute unity and singularity of God Deuteronomy , and the worship of a person is understood as a form of idolatry.
Judaic criticism of Jesus is long-standing. The Talmud , written and compiled from the 3rd to the 5th century AD,  includes stories that since medieval times have been considered to be defamatory accounts of Jesus.
Medieval Hebrew literature contains the anecdotal "Episode of Jesus" known also as Toledot Yeshu , in which Jesus is described as being the son of Joseph, the son of Pandera see: Episode of Jesus.
The account portrays Jesus as an impostor. Islamic texts emphasize a strict notion of monotheism tawhid and forbid the association of partners with God, which would be idolatry.
The Quran describes the annunciation to Mary Maryam by the Holy Spirit that she is to give birth to Jesus while remaining a virgin.
It calls the virgin birth a miracle that occurred by the will of God. To aid in his ministry to the Jewish people, Jesus was given the ability to perform miracles , by permission of God rather than by his own power.
The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community has several distinct teachings about Jesus. Ahmadis believe that he was a mortal man who survived his crucifixion and died a natural death at the age of in Kashmir , India and is buried at Roza Bal.
In Christian Gnosticism now a largely extinct religious movement ,  Jesus was sent from the divine realm and provided the secret knowledge gnosis necessary for salvation.
Most Gnostics believed that Jesus was a human who became possessed by the spirit of "the Christ" at his baptism.
This spirit left Jesus' body during the crucifixion, but was rejoined to him when he was raised from the dead.
Some Gnostics, however, were docetics , believed that Jesus did not have a physical body, but only appeared to possess one. Some Hindus consider Jesus to be an avatar or a sadhu.
Some of the earliest depictions of Jesus at the Dura-Europos church are firmly dated to before The depiction of Christ in pictorial form was highly controversial in the early Church.
Although large images are generally avoided, few Protestants now object to book illustrations depicting Jesus. The Transfiguration was a major theme in Eastern Christian art, and every Eastern Orthodox monk who had trained in icon painting had to prove his craft by painting an icon depicting it.
Before the Protestant Reformation, the crucifix was common in Western Christianity. It is a model of the cross with Jesus crucified on it.
The crucifix became the central ornament of the altar in the 13th century, a use that has been nearly universal in Roman Catholic churches since then.
Jesus appears as an infant in a manger feed trough in Christmas creches, which depict the Nativity scene. The total destruction that ensued with the siege of Jerusalem by the Romans in AD 70 made the survival of items from 1st-century Judea very rare and almost no direct records survive about the history of Judaism from the last part of the 1st century through the 2nd century.
However, throughout the history of Christianity, a number of relics attributed to Jesus have been claimed, although doubt has been cast on them.
The 16th-century Catholic theologian Erasmus wrote sarcastically about the proliferation of relics and the number of buildings that could have been constructed from the wood claimed to be from the cross used in the Crucifixion.
Some relics, such as purported remnants of the Crown of Thorns , receive only a modest number of pilgrims , while the Shroud of Turin which is associated with an approved Catholic devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus , has received millions,  including popes John Paul II and Benedict XVI.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Christ disambiguation , Jesus of Nazareth disambiguation , and Jesus disambiguation.
The central figure of Christianity. Judea , Roman Empire . Jerusalem , Judea , Roman Empire. Mary Joseph [d]. Jesus in Christianity.
Jesus in Islam. Jesus in history. Perspectives on Jesus. Jesus in culture. Life in art Depiction Jesuism.
Early life. In rest of the NT. Road to Damascus John's vision. Main article: Life of Jesus in the New Testament. Main articles: Genealogy of Jesus and Nativity of Jesus.
Main article: Christ Child. Main articles: Baptism of Jesus and Temptation of Christ. Main article: Ministry of Jesus.
Main articles: Confession of Peter and Transfiguration of Jesus. Main article: Last Supper. Main articles: Crucifixion of Jesus and Burial of Jesus.
See also: Sayings of Jesus on the cross and Crucifixion eclipse. Further information: Overview of resurrection appearances in the Gospels and Paul.
Main article: Early Christianity. See also: Biblical criticism. Main article: Sources for the historicity of Jesus.
See also: Josephus on Jesus and Tacitus on Christ. A edition of the works of Josephus, a 1st-century Roman-Jewish historian who referred to Jesus .
Main article: Chronology of Jesus. See also: Anno Domini. Main article: Historicity of Jesus. See also: Brothers of Jesus. Main articles: Historical Jesus and Quest for the historical Jesus.
Further information: Language of Jesus and Race and appearance of Jesus. Main article: Christ myth theory.
Main article: Religious perspectives on Jesus. Main articles: Jesus in Christianity , Christ title , and Christology.
Main article: Judaism's view of Jesus. See also: Jesus in the Talmud. Main article: Jesus in Islam. Main article: Jesus in Ahmadiyya Islam.
See also: Criticism of Jesus. Main article: Depiction of Jesus. Main article: Relics associated with Jesus.
Watts state that the crucifixion of Jesus is as certain as any historical fact can be. Eddy and Gregory A. Boyd say that non-Christian confirmation of the crucifixion of Jesus is now "firmly established".
Muslims believe that she conceived her son miraculously by the command of God. Joseph was from these perspectives the acting adoptive father.
Burridge states: "There are those who argue that Jesus is a figment of the Church's imagination, that there never was a Jesus at all.
I have to say that I do not know any respectable critical scholar who says that any more". Price does not believe that Jesus existed, but agrees that this perspective runs against the views of the majority of scholars.
Dunn calls the theories of Jesus' non-existence "a thoroughly dead thesis". Van Voorst states that biblical scholars and classical historians regard theories of non-existence of Jesus as effectively refuted.
These units were later moved and arranged by authors and editors. Some material has been revised and some created by early Christians.
His followers came to believe he was the promised Messiah. Acts , but for the most part he displays little interest in the details of Jesus' earthly life and ministry.
The fact that Jesus existed, that he was crucified under Pontius Pilate for whatever reason and that he had a band of followers who continued to support his cause, seems to be part of the bedrock of historical tradition.
If nothing else, the non-Christian evidence can provide us with certainty on that score. Meier states that Jesus' birth year is c.
Or if he did, he had virtually nothing to do with the founding of Christianity. Age of Reason, , pp. Christology was a major focus of these debates, and was addressed at every one of the first seven ecumenical councils.
Some early beliefs viewed Jesus as ontologically subordinate to the Father Subordinationism , and others considered him an aspect of the Father rather than a separate person Sabellianism , both were condemned as heresies by the Catholic Church.
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