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Tentukan rumus hidrat tersebut! Dalam hitungan kimia, pereaksi pembatas dapat ditentukan dengan cara membagi semua mol reaktan dengan koefisiennya, lalu pereaksi yang mempunyai nilai hasil bagi terkecil merupakan pereaksi pembatas.

Di dalam suatu reaksi kimia, perbandingan mol zat-zat pereaksi yang dicampurkan tidak selalu sama dengan perbandingan koefisien reaksinya.

Hal ini berarti bahwa ada zat pereaksi yang akan habis bereaksi lebih dahulu. Pereaksi demikian disebut pereaksi pembatas. Bagaimana hal ini dapat terjadi?

Anda perhatikan gambar di bawah ini! Tentukan: Pereaksi pembatasnya dan volumegas hidrogen yang dihasilkan pada STP. Hitunglah kadar HgO, jika pada suhu tersebut volume gas oksigen terjadi 82 L!

Sejumlah arus listrik dialirkan melalui larutan CuSO4 sehingga dihasilkan 3, gram logam Cu. Bila jumlah arus listrik yang sama digunakan untuk elektrolisis NaCl, maka akan dihasilkan gas Cl 2 pada keadaan STP sebanyak ….

Menurut Arrhenius, larutan elektrolit dalam air terdisosiasi ke dalam partikel-partikel bermuatan listrik positif dan negatif yang disebut ion ion positif dan ion negatif Jumlah muatan ion positif akan sama dengan jumlah muatan ion negatif, sehingga muatan ion-ion dalam larutan netral.

Ion-ion inilah yang bertugas mengahantarkan arus listrik. Larutan yang dapat menghantarkan arus listrik disebut larutan elektrolit.

Zat terlarut memiliki dua sifat berdasarkan perilakunya apabila arus listrik dialirkan. Sifat pertama, zat terlarut dapat menghantarkan arus listrik, sehingga larutan yang terbentuk mengalami perubahan kimia dan mampu menghantarkan arus listrik.

Larutan tersebut dinamakan larutan elektrolit. Sifat kedua, zat yang apabila dilarutkan ke dalam air tidak dapat menghantarkan arus listrik dan tidak ada perubahan kimia, sehingga larutan yang terbentuk dinamakan larutan nonelektrolit.

Semua larutan anorganik, baik asam, basa, maupun garam memiliki sifat mampu menghantarkan arus listrik. Sedangkan semua larutan yang berasal dari zat organik seperti gula tebu, manosa, glukosa, gliserin, etanol, dan urea, tidak mampu menghantarkan arus listrik.

Laruta Non-Elektrolit Larutan non elektrolit merupakan larutan yang dibentuk dari zat non elektrolit. Sedangkan zat non elektrolit itu sendiri merupakan zat-zat yang di dalam air tidak terurai dalam bentuk ion-ionnya, tetapi terurai dalam bentuk molekuler.

Air yang murni tidak akan menghantarkan listrik. Tetapi jika zat yang bersifat asam, basa, maupun garam telah dilarutkan di dalamnya, larutan yang dihasilkan akan mampu menghantarkan arus listrik.

Secara sederhana, kemampuan suatu larutan untuk menghantarkan listrik dapat diuji dengan alat uji elektrolit. Alat uji elektrolit tersebut terdiri atas sebuah bejana yang dihubungkan dengan dua buah elektrode.

Elektrodeelektrode tersebut dihubungkan pada saklar dan lampu. Jika larutan elektrolit dimasukkan ke dalam bejana tersebut, lampu akan menyala.

Sedangkan jika larutan nonelektrolit yang dimasukkan, lampu tidak akan menyala. Arus listrik dalam larutan elektrolit dihantarkan oleh migrasi partikel-partikel.

Selain ditandai dengan menyalanya lampu, pada larutan elektrolit juga terdapat perubahan-perubahan kimia yang dapat diamati. Salah satu perubahan tersebut berupa timbulnya gelembung-gelembung gas, perubahan warna larutan, atau bahkan terbentuk endapan.

Suatu larutan yang dapat menghantarkan listrik dinamakan larutan elektrolit. Kekuatan menghantarkan listrik tergantung pada jumlah ion yang terdapat dalam larutan tersebut.

Semakin banyak jumlah ionnya semakin kuat sifat elektrolitnya. Hal ini disebabkan oleh derajat ionisasi zat yang terlarut. Pada senyawa ion yang berwujud lelehan dan larutan ion-ionya dapat bergerak bebas, sedangkan pada wujud padat tidak.

Demikian pula pada senyawa kovalen hanya yang berwujud larutanlah yang ionnya dapat bergerak bebas. Jadi sifat elektrolit suatu senyawa ditentukan oleh ionnya.

Sebagaimana disebutkan di atas, bahwa arus listrik dalam larutan elektrolit dihantarkan oleh partikel-partikel bermuatan. Untuk menjelaskan fakta tersebut, Svante August Arrhenius mengemukakan teorinya tentang dissosiasi atau ionisasi elektrolit.

Teori ini menyebutkan bahwa zat elektrolit apabila dilarutkan dalam air, akan berdissosiasi menjadi atom-atom atau gugus atom yang bermuatan.

Atom-atom atau gugus atom bermuatan tersebut merupakan ion-ion yang menghantarkan arus dalam elektrolit secara migrasi. Ion-ion tersebut bermuatan positif kation.

Oleh karena larutan harus bersifat netral, besarnya jumlah total muatan-muatan positif harus sama dengan muatan negatif dalam suatu larutan.

Jumlah muatan yang dibawa oleh sebuah ion besarnya sama dengan valensi ion tersebut. Berdasarkan kemampuannya dalam menghantarkan arus listrik, larutan elektrolit dibagi menjadi dua macam, yaitu:.

Larutan elektrolit kuat , yaitu larutan yang memiliki daya hantar listrik besar. Larutan elektrolit kuat terionisasi sempurna di dalam air.

Jika diuji dalam penguji elektrolit sederhana, lampu akan menyala terang. Larutan elektrolit lemah , yaitu larutan yang memiliki daya hantar kecil karena tidak semua zat terionisasi, atau hanya mengalami ionisasi sebagian.

Jika diuji dengan penguji elektrolit sederhana, lampu akan menyala redup. Contoh larutan elektrolit lemah adalah larutan cuka dan amonia.

Larutan nonelektrolit tidak akan terionisasi dalam larutan. Proses ionisasi dipengaruhi oleh konsentrasi.

Derajat dissosiasi adalah fraksi molekul yang benar-benar terdissosiasi. Atau dapat juga merupakan perbandingan mol zat terionisasi dengan mol zat mula-mula.

Derajat dissosiasi dapat dinyatakan dengan rumus:. Kemampuan untuk menghantarkan arus listrik tidak hanya dimiliki oleh senyawa ionik.

Beberapa senyawa kovalen juga mampu menghantarkan listrik. Meski demikian, senyawa kovalen dan ionik memiliki beberapa perbedaan dalam menghantarkan arus listrik.

Senyawa ionik adalah senyawa yang atom-atomnya berikatan secara ionik. Ikatan ionik adalah ikatan yang dihasilkan dari perpindahan elektron dari satu atom ke atom lain.

Satu atom memberikan satu atau lebih dari elektron terluarnya. Atom yang kehilangan elektron menjadi ion positif kation dan atom yang menerima elektron menjadi ion negative anion.

Dalam larutan, senyawa ionik akan terurai sempurna menjadi ionionnya yang bergerak bebas. Ion-ion itulah yang menghantarkan arus listrik.

Dalam larutan, senyawa ionik pada umumnya membentuk larutan elektrolit kuat. Senyawa kovalen adalah senyawa yang atom-atomnya berikatan secara kovalen.

Ikatan kovalen terjadi akibat penggunaan bersama-sama pasangan elektron oleh dua atom. Senyawa kovalen nonpolar timbul karena perbedaan elektronegativitas antaratom yang sangat kecil, bahkan hampir sama.

Sementara itu, senyawa kovalen polar timbul karena perbedaan elektronegativitas yang cukup besar antara dua atom. Hal tersebut menyebabkan salah satu atom lebih positif dan yang lain lebih negatif.

Larutan senyawa kovalen polar mampu menghantarkan arus listrik dengan baik. Hal tersebut terjadi karena senyawa kovalen polar dalam air akan terdissosiasi menjadi ion-ionnya.

Beberapa senyawa kovalen polar tidak terdissosiasi sempurna dalam pelarut air sehingga memiliki kemampuan daya hantar listrik yang.

Hal ini karena dalam pelarut air, hanya sedikit dari zat tersebut yang terdissosiasi membentuk ion. Sebagai contoh larutan elektrolit adalah HCl….

Ion-ion dalam larutan elektrolit bergerak ke arah elektrode yang jenisnya sama dengan muatannya. Zat elektrolit akan terionisasi menjadi ion positif dan negative saat dilarutkan dalam air.

Bilangan oksidasi bisa bernilai positif atau negatif jadi bisa juga dianggap muatan ion. Setiap reaksi redoks terdiri dari setengah reaksi reduksi dan setengah reaksi oksidasi.

Zat yang direduksi disebut oksidator dan zat yang dioksidasi disebut reduktor. Reaksi redoks bisa disetarakan dengan dua cara, yaitu metode setengah reaksi dan metode perubahan bilangan oksidasi.

Contoh : konsep 1 :berdasarkan pengikatan dan pelepasan oksigen. Reaksi redoks melibatkan transfer elektron dari suatu unsur atau senyawa ke unsur atau senyawa lainnya.

Transfer elektron ini dapat terjadi langsung, yakni satu ion menabrak ion lainnya dan selama itu elektron dieruskan dari ke lain ion.

Namun mungkin juga untuk meneruskan elektron-elektron lewat elektroda dan kabel dari satu ke ion lainnya.

Sebuah sel Galvani terdiri dari dua setengah-reaksi, masing — masing terdiri dari sebuah elektroda dan sebuah elektrolit.

Kedua elektrolit dihubungkan dengan suatu jembatan garam dan, jika elektroda dihubungkan dengan kawat, elektron akan mengalir menurut arah yang ditunjukkan.

Gerakan elektron dalam kawat menunjukkan bahwa suatu arus listrik sedang mengalir. Senyawa biner tersusun atas dua macam unsur, baik logam dan nonlogam maupun kedua unsur- unsurnya nonlogam, nama logam didahulukan diikuti senyawa nonlogam yang diberi akhiran —ida.

Senyawa biner yang mengandung unsur yang memiliki lebih dari satu bilangan oksidasi maka bilangan oksidasi unsur tersebut ditulis dengan menggunakan angka romawi dalam tanda kurung di belakang nama unsurnya.

Senyawa ionik diberi nama dengan cara menyebutkan nama kation diikuti nama anion. Jika anion terdiri dari beberapa atom dan mengandung unsur yang memiliki lebih dari satu macam bilangan oksidasi, nama anion tersebut diberi imbuhan hipo-it , -it , -at , atau per-at sesuai dengan jumlah bilangan oksidasi.

Safranal was administered at different doses 30 min before, 1 hr or 2 hr after the last dose of morphine. Based on results, safranal had the same effects as naloxone.

Regarding the symptoms observed following safranal administration, the authors proposed that these serotonin-syndrome-like effects may be due to the co-administration of serotonergic antidepressants and opioids.

Death was linked to potentiating morphine withdrawal syndrome and it was concluded that safranal acts as an opioid partial agonist. A research by Hosseinzadeh and Ziaee 53 revealed that safranal 0.

In this study, rats received safranal Regarding the sunscreen and moisturizing properties of saffron, C. Also moisture content of skin was evaluated at different times following topical administration of saffron.

Skin moisture did not differ significantly after saffron topical administration Hence, it was concluded that safranal could be used as a natural sunscreen even at concentrations lower than of homosalate.

Mounting frequency, intromission frequency, erection frequency, mount latency, intromission latency and ejaculation latency were evaluated following intraperitoneally administration of safranal 0.

It was shown that safranal affects sexual behavior negatively and it was concluded that these effects might be because of safranal ability to inhibit serotonin reuptake, as delayed ejaculation, inability to ejaculate and absent or delayed orgasm is observed following administration of fluoxetine 9.

Another study by Shamsa et al 56 showed that taking saffron tablets each tablet contains mg dried saffron stigma for ten days by twenty patients resulted in a statistically significant improvement in tip rigidity and tip tumescence as well as base rigidity and base tumescence.

Authors proposed that this effect could be due to crocin and safranal antioxidant and radical scavenging properties and could be linked to their protective effect on ischemia-reperfusion injuries as it was observed in hind limb and kidney of rats.

Safranal effects on respiratory tracts could be summarized as antitussive effects and H 1 antagonism, which are shown in Table 5.

Safranal 0. Safranal significantly reduced the coughs count as compared to saline treated group 7. Safranal 1. The effect of safranal 0.

Safranal resulted in rightward shifting in histamine—response curves, significant increase in maximum responses to histamine and greater EC It was concluded that safranal possibly acts as a histamine H 1 receptors competitive antagonist To evaluate the possible protective effects of safranal against diazinon, safranal 0.

When co-administerd with diazinon, safranal 0. With the same protocol of safranal administration, Hariri et al 62 , observed that safranal 0.

At all doses safranal had no effects on diazinon impact on RBC cholinesterase activity. In the micronucleus assay, safranal could not reverse the genotoxicity of diazinon.

Authors postulated that protective properties of safranal could be attributed to its radical scavenging effects on RBC count and hemoglobin concentration and also on bone marrow in production of platelets.

Boroushaki and Sadeghnia 63 investigated the effect of safranal on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

On day 7, cardiac blood samples were collected and nephrotoxicity markers were evaluated. While blood urea nitrogen and creatinine and urinary glucose and protein concentration were significantly higher in gentamicin only treated group in comparison with saline treated, difference between saline treated and safranal plus gentamicin treated groups was not statistically significant.

Authors declared that although the exact mechanism could not be described but this effect might be due to safranal antioxidant properties.

Boroushaki et al 64 used hexachlorobutadiene HCBD to cause nephrotoxicity in rats and evaluated the protective effects of safranal using kidneys for histological and MDA analysis and blood urine samples for assessment of urea, creatinine, glucose and protein concentrations.

Blood creatinine levels were not statistically different among groups but blood urea was significantly lower in safranal treated groups 0.

Also, safranal 0. Light microscopic examination of kidneys' sections showed a massive damage in straight portion of proximal tubules in groups 2 and 5.

Since no changes were observed in MDA results among different groups, it was concluded that HCBD nephrotoxicity could not be a result of oxidative stress.

Hence, safranal antioxidant properties do not play an important role here. Kianbakht and Hajiaghaee 65 evaluated six weeks administration of safranal 0.

Finally, while it was shown that safranal reduces fasting blood glucose and HbA1c levels and improves the blood insulin levels significantly, there were no significant changes in the blood SGOT, SGPT and creatinine levels.

Imenshahidi et al 11 evaluated the effects of intravenously administered safranal 0. Safaranal at all doses decreased mean arterial blood pressure MABP significantly in hypertensive rats and at two higher doses in normotensive rats.

Heart rate was also reduced at all doses but not statistically significant. Since saffron stigma aqueous extract and crocin were evaluated along with safranal and based on the results, it was proposed that safranal is more important than crocin in hypotensive properties of saffron.

Authors mentioned that the immediate reduction in blood pressure suggests that both heart function and blood vessels contractility is affected by safranal.

Based on the study of Boskabady and Aslani 66 in which a potent relaxant effect of safranal on smooth muscles of guinea pigs was shown and also because of interaction of safranal with GABA A -benzodiazepine receptor complex 48 and the observations that benzodiazepines, in pre-anesthetic doses, decrease blood pressure via decreasing peripheral resistance or cardiac output 67 hypotensive effect of safranal could be due to its interaction with GABA A -benzodiazepine receptor.

Desoxycorticosterone acetate treatment causes an endothelial dysfunction both in the isolated aortic rings and perfused mesenteric bed 68 since safranal effects on normotensive and hypertensive rats were almost the same, it was concluded that its action is not endothelium dependent.

On day 15, 45 min of ischemia was induced by one-stage ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery and afterward, reperfusion was carried out for 60 min.

According to results, safranal reduced infarct size, enhanced left ventricular functions and myocardium hemodynamic status, generally.

Since safranal resulted in Bcl-2 expression upregulation and Bax and caspase3 expression downregulation, it could act as a strong antiapoptotic chemical.

In a model of ischemia-reperfusion injury, safranal 0. In another study, hind limb ischemia was induced by clamping the common femoral artery and vein and was maintained for 2 hr.

Following this period, rats experienced reperfusion for 1 hr. Safranal reduced MDA levels, increased the average peak-to-peak amplitudes of electromyographic EMG potentials and improved total sulfhydryl groups and antioxidant capacity of muscle assessed by FRAP assay significantly.

Authors declared that safranal antioxidant effects could be attributed to its ability in quenching free radicals It has been shown that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of C.

Weak to moderate anti inflammatory effects were observed using stigma extracts. Also, aqueous and ethanolic stigma extracts and ethanolic petal extract were found to be effective against chronic inflammation According to Nasri et al safranal exhibits anti-nociceptive effects in acute phase of formalin assay but has no effects on inflammation as assessed by Mercury immersion method Amin and Hosseinzadeh 74 evaluated the effects of systemic administration of safranal 0.

According to results, safranal attenuates the neuropathic pain behavioral symptoms, dose-dependently.

It was assumed that modulation of BDZ sites on GABA A receptors, decrease in aspartate and glutamate in hippocampus extracellular space which have been shown to be involved in the generation of neuropathic pain and antioxidant capacity of safranal may play an important role.

Regarding antinociceptive effects of safranal, Hosseinzadeh and Shariaty 75 designed a study using hot-plate, writhing and formalin tests. Administration of safranal 0.

Only 30 min after safranal 0. In formalin test, pain-related behaviors were decreased in phase I by safranal 0. Naloxone did not abolish the anti-nociceptive effects of safranal completely.

It was concluded that safranal antinociceptive effects could be more due to its impact on prostaglandin synthesis or actions rather than opioid receptors.

Based on formalin tests result, safranal has a greater impact on inflammatory and peripheral phase. By means of deoxyribose, erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation and liver microsomal non-enzymatic lipid peroxide tion methods, the antioxidant activity of safranal 0.

Safranal showed hydroxyl radical scavenging activity dose-dependently in deoxyribose assay and decreased MDA generation in RBC, lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2 and liver microsomal non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation 5.

The interaction between calf-thymus DNA and safranal 0. Higher levels of DNA vibrations at higher safranal concentrations were described to be related to helix destabilization.

Despite the low calculated K values, following safranal treatment remarkable changes in DNA was observed According to CD recordings, picrocrocin-ctDNA interaction takes place at lower concentrations than those of safranal.

Genoprotective effects of pretreatment with C. Hosseinzadeh and Sadeghnia 80 studied the genotoxic effects of safranal using single-cell gel electrophoresis SCGE , comet assay.

Male rats received safranal At all doses and in all organs cells, safranal pre-treatment resulted in a significant protection against MMS-induced DNA damage.

It is worth mentioning that even at relatively high doses of safranal no adverse effect was recorded.

According to Hosseinzadeh et al 81 , subacute 21 days and acute 2 days toxicity of safranal were assessed using rat and mouse models.

LD50 of safranal were calculated as follows:. Also, subacute toxicity of safranal were evaluated following once-daily administration of safranal 0.

Also, asthenia, anorexia, decrease in food and water consumption and weight loss were observed. These effects were more pronounced at higher doses.

Based on our results, there were a significant reduction in body weights, RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets at all doses.

Safranal reduced total cholesterol, triglyceride at all doses and alkalin phosphatase ALP at two higher doses. Regarding pathological assessment of heart, liver and spleen, no abnormalities were observed, but histological evaluations showed abnormalities and toxic effects of safranal, especially at the dose of 0.

In kidneys edema and cytolysis were recorded and in lungs progressed emphysema and lymphocyte infiltration were observed As for the genotoxicity, Hariri et al 62 showed that IP administration of safranal 0.

Investigating cytotoxic and antimicrobial effects of safranal 0. Eventually it was concluded that safranal shows great dose-dependent anti-tumor and toxic effects of Further investigations showed that safranal could be introduced as the chemical which plays the main role in this trend but no more explanations were provided.

Escribano et al studied the cytotoxic effects of saffron ethanolic extract, crocin, safranal and picrocrocin at the concentration of LD 50 2.

Finally, it was concluded that crocin may have a more profound value as an anticancer agent in comparison with other main saffron chemicals According to different studies, safranal as the main chemical responsible for C.

To the best of our knowledge, missing areas of interest which have not been fully completed are clinical trials and toxicological studies, which need further attention.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Iran J Basic Med Sci. Find articles by Ramin Rezaee. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Received Aug 5; Accepted Oct 6. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Safranal, the main component of Crocus sativus essential oil, is thought to be the main cause of saffron unique odor.

Introduction C. History Beside its exclusive color, saffron presents a particular taste which is originates from its picrocrocin content.

Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Table 3 Conventional methods for extracting volatile compounds.

Table 1 Safranal physicochemical properties Molecular weight d 4 19 bp 1. Table 2 Plants from which safranal has been extracted.

Plant Part Crocus sativus 23 entire plant Centaurea sibthorpii 24 aerial parts Centaurea amanicola 25 aerial parts Centaurea consanguinea 25 aerial parts Erodium cicutarium 26 entire plant Chinese green tea 27 green tea trade marks Calycopteris floribunda 28 leaves Crocus heuffelianus 29 shoot primordia Sambucus nigra 30 flowers Lemon Citrus limon 31 fruits Achillea distans 32 root.

Figure 2. Table 4 Summery of the effects of safranal on central nervous system. Full protection at higher doses against GTCS and death.

Significant decrease in protective results against GTCS onset and rate when co-administered with flumazenil but not with naloxone.

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Hitunglah kemolaran larutan NaOH itu! Berapa massa Al 2 SO 4 3 yang terlarut dalam larutan itu? Bila 1,50 g padatan H 2 C 2 O 4.

Jumlah soal ada 5 dan jika anda dapat mengerjakan minimal 4 benar anda dikatakan telah tuntas dan jika tidak anda untuk belajar lagi atau anda mengerjakan soal remedial.

Jika gas XO 2 mempunyai Mr 60, makamassa atom relatif X adalah …. Volume dari 4 gram gas metana, CH 4 pada keadaan dimana 3,2 gram gas oksigen volumenya 2 L.

Saya tidak takut pada orang yang berlatih sekali untuk Setelah ditemukan peralatan yang sangat peka di awal abad XX, para ahli kimia melakukan percobaan tentang massa satu atom.

Sebagai contoh, dilakukan percobaan untuk mengukur. Dari data di atas dapat dilihat bahwa massa satu atom sangat kecil.

Pada materi struktur atom, Anda telah mempelajari juga bahwa atom sangatlah kecil, oleh karena itu tidak mungkin menimbang atom dengan menggunakan neraca.

Para ahli menggunakan isotop karbon C—12 sebagai standar dengan massa atom relatif sebesar Atau dapat dituliskan:. Molekul merupakan gabungan dari beberapa unsur dengan perbandingan tertentu.

Unsur-unsur yang sama bergabung membentuk molekul unsur, sedangkan unsur-unsur yang berbeda membentuk molekul senyawa.

Massa molekul unsur atau senyawa dinyatakan oleh massa molekul Mr. Massa molekul relatif adalah perbandingan massa molekul unsur atau senyawa terhadap x massa atom C— Secara matematis dapat dinyatakan:.

Apabila Anda mereaksikan satu atom karbon C dengan satu molekul oksigen O2 maka akan terbentuk satu molekul CO2. Tetapi sebenarnya yang Anda reaksikan bukan satu atom karbon dengan satu molekul oksigen, melainkan sejumlah besar atom karbon dan sejumlah besar molekul oksigen.

Oleh karena jumlah atom atau jumlah molekul yang bereaksi begitu besarnya. Satu mol didevinissikan sebagai jumlah zat yang mengandung partikel zat itu sebanyak atim yang terdapat dalam Nilai 6, x 10 23 partikel per mol disebut sebagai tetapan Avogadro, dengan lambang L atau N.

Jika lusin menyatakan jumlah 12 buah, mol menyatakan jumlah 6, x 10 23 partikel zat. Dari contoh di atas, dapat disimpulkan mengenai hubungan jumlah mol n dengan jumlah partikel, yang secara matematik dapat dinyatakan sebagai berikut.

Massa satu mol zat dinamakan massa molar lambang Mr. Besarnya massa molar zat adalah massa atom relatif atau massa molekul relatif zat yang dinyatakan dalam satuan gram per mol.

Volume satu mol zat dalam wujud gas dinamakan volume molar, yang dilambangkan dengan Vm. Berapakah volume molar gas? Bagaimana menghitung volume sejumlah.

Menurut hukum Avogadro, perbandingan gas-gas yang jumlah molnya sama memiliki volume sama. Secara matematis dapat dinyatakan sebagai berikut.

Banyaknya zat yang terdapat dalam suatu larutan dapat diketahui dengan menggunakan konsentrasi larutan yang dinyatakan dalam molaritas M.

Molaritas menyatakan banyaknya mol zat dalam 1 L larutan. Secara matematis dinyatakan sebagai berikut. Perbandingan massa dan kadar unsur dalam suatu senyawa dapat ditentukan dari rumus molekulnya.

Di mana, Kadar. Rumus kimia menunjukkan jenis atom unsur dan jumlah relatif masing-masing unsur yang terdapat dalam zat.

Banyaknya unsur yang terdapat dalam zat ditunjukkan dengan angka indeks. Rumus kimia dapat berupa rumus empiris dan rumus molekul.

Hidrat adalah senyawa kristal padat yang mengandung air kristal H2O. Rumus kimia senyawa kristal padat sudah diketahui.

Jadi pada dasarnya penentuan rumus hidrat merupakan penentuan jumlah molekul air Kristal H2O atau nilai x.

Secara umum, rumus hidrat dapat ditulis sebagai berikut. Sebagai contoh garam kalsium sulfat, memiliki rumus kimia CaSO4.

Sebanyak 5 g tembaga II sulfat hidrat dipanaskan sampai semua air kristalnya menguap. Massa tembaga II sulfat padat yang terbentuk 3,20 g.

Tentukan rumus hidrat tersebut! Dalam hitungan kimia, pereaksi pembatas dapat ditentukan dengan cara membagi semua mol reaktan dengan koefisiennya, lalu pereaksi yang mempunyai nilai hasil bagi terkecil merupakan pereaksi pembatas.

Di dalam suatu reaksi kimia, perbandingan mol zat-zat pereaksi yang dicampurkan tidak selalu sama dengan perbandingan koefisien reaksinya. Hal ini berarti bahwa ada zat pereaksi yang akan habis bereaksi lebih dahulu.

Pereaksi demikian disebut pereaksi pembatas. Bagaimana hal ini dapat terjadi? Anda perhatikan gambar di bawah ini!

Tentukan: Pereaksi pembatasnya dan volumegas hidrogen yang dihasilkan pada STP. Hitunglah kadar HgO, jika pada suhu tersebut volume gas oksigen terjadi 82 L!

Sejumlah arus listrik dialirkan melalui larutan CuSO4 sehingga dihasilkan 3, gram logam Cu. Bila jumlah arus listrik yang sama digunakan untuk elektrolisis NaCl, maka akan dihasilkan gas Cl 2 pada keadaan STP sebanyak ….

Menurut Arrhenius, larutan elektrolit dalam air terdisosiasi ke dalam partikel-partikel bermuatan listrik positif dan negatif yang disebut ion ion positif dan ion negatif Jumlah muatan ion positif akan sama dengan jumlah muatan ion negatif, sehingga muatan ion-ion dalam larutan netral.

Ion-ion inilah yang bertugas mengahantarkan arus listrik. Larutan yang dapat menghantarkan arus listrik disebut larutan elektrolit.

Zat terlarut memiliki dua sifat berdasarkan perilakunya apabila arus listrik dialirkan. Sifat pertama, zat terlarut dapat menghantarkan arus listrik, sehingga larutan yang terbentuk mengalami perubahan kimia dan mampu menghantarkan arus listrik.

Larutan tersebut dinamakan larutan elektrolit. Sifat kedua, zat yang apabila dilarutkan ke dalam air tidak dapat menghantarkan arus listrik dan tidak ada perubahan kimia, sehingga larutan yang terbentuk dinamakan larutan nonelektrolit.

Semua larutan anorganik, baik asam, basa, maupun garam memiliki sifat mampu menghantarkan arus listrik.

Sedangkan semua larutan yang berasal dari zat organik seperti gula tebu, manosa, glukosa, gliserin, etanol, dan urea, tidak mampu menghantarkan arus listrik.

Laruta Non-Elektrolit Larutan non elektrolit merupakan larutan yang dibentuk dari zat non elektrolit. Sedangkan zat non elektrolit itu sendiri merupakan zat-zat yang di dalam air tidak terurai dalam bentuk ion-ionnya, tetapi terurai dalam bentuk molekuler.

Air yang murni tidak akan menghantarkan listrik. Tetapi jika zat yang bersifat asam, basa, maupun garam telah dilarutkan di dalamnya, larutan yang dihasilkan akan mampu menghantarkan arus listrik.

Secara sederhana, kemampuan suatu larutan untuk menghantarkan listrik dapat diuji dengan alat uji elektrolit.

Alat uji elektrolit tersebut terdiri atas sebuah bejana yang dihubungkan dengan dua buah elektrode. Elektrodeelektrode tersebut dihubungkan pada saklar dan lampu.

Jika larutan elektrolit dimasukkan ke dalam bejana tersebut, lampu akan menyala. Sedangkan jika larutan nonelektrolit yang dimasukkan, lampu tidak akan menyala.

Arus listrik dalam larutan elektrolit dihantarkan oleh migrasi partikel-partikel. Selain ditandai dengan menyalanya lampu, pada larutan elektrolit juga terdapat perubahan-perubahan kimia yang dapat diamati.

Salah satu perubahan tersebut berupa timbulnya gelembung-gelembung gas, perubahan warna larutan, atau bahkan terbentuk endapan.

Suatu larutan yang dapat menghantarkan listrik dinamakan larutan elektrolit. Kekuatan menghantarkan listrik tergantung pada jumlah ion yang terdapat dalam larutan tersebut.

Semakin banyak jumlah ionnya semakin kuat sifat elektrolitnya. Hal ini disebabkan oleh derajat ionisasi zat yang terlarut. Pada senyawa ion yang berwujud lelehan dan larutan ion-ionya dapat bergerak bebas, sedangkan pada wujud padat tidak.

Demikian pula pada senyawa kovalen hanya yang berwujud larutanlah yang ionnya dapat bergerak bebas.

Jadi sifat elektrolit suatu senyawa ditentukan oleh ionnya. Sebagaimana disebutkan di atas, bahwa arus listrik dalam larutan elektrolit dihantarkan oleh partikel-partikel bermuatan.

Untuk menjelaskan fakta tersebut, Svante August Arrhenius mengemukakan teorinya tentang dissosiasi atau ionisasi elektrolit.

Teori ini menyebutkan bahwa zat elektrolit apabila dilarutkan dalam air, akan berdissosiasi menjadi atom-atom atau gugus atom yang bermuatan.

Atom-atom atau gugus atom bermuatan tersebut merupakan ion-ion yang menghantarkan arus dalam elektrolit secara migrasi. Ion-ion tersebut bermuatan positif kation.

Oleh karena larutan harus bersifat netral, besarnya jumlah total muatan-muatan positif harus sama dengan muatan negatif dalam suatu larutan.

Jumlah muatan yang dibawa oleh sebuah ion besarnya sama dengan valensi ion tersebut. Berdasarkan kemampuannya dalam menghantarkan arus listrik, larutan elektrolit dibagi menjadi dua macam, yaitu:.

Larutan elektrolit kuat , yaitu larutan yang memiliki daya hantar listrik besar. Larutan elektrolit kuat terionisasi sempurna di dalam air.

Jika diuji dalam penguji elektrolit sederhana, lampu akan menyala terang. Larutan elektrolit lemah , yaitu larutan yang memiliki daya hantar kecil karena tidak semua zat terionisasi, atau hanya mengalami ionisasi sebagian.

Jika diuji dengan penguji elektrolit sederhana, lampu akan menyala redup. Contoh larutan elektrolit lemah adalah larutan cuka dan amonia.

Larutan nonelektrolit tidak akan terionisasi dalam larutan. Proses ionisasi dipengaruhi oleh konsentrasi. Derajat dissosiasi adalah fraksi molekul yang benar-benar terdissosiasi.

Atau dapat juga merupakan perbandingan mol zat terionisasi dengan mol zat mula-mula. Derajat dissosiasi dapat dinyatakan dengan rumus:.

Kemampuan untuk menghantarkan arus listrik tidak hanya dimiliki oleh senyawa ionik. Beberapa senyawa kovalen juga mampu menghantarkan listrik.

Meski demikian, senyawa kovalen dan ionik memiliki beberapa perbedaan dalam menghantarkan arus listrik. Senyawa ionik adalah senyawa yang atom-atomnya berikatan secara ionik.

Ikatan ionik adalah ikatan yang dihasilkan dari perpindahan elektron dari satu atom ke atom lain. Satu atom memberikan satu atau lebih dari elektron terluarnya.

Atom yang kehilangan elektron menjadi ion positif kation dan atom yang menerima elektron menjadi ion negative anion. Dalam larutan, senyawa ionik akan terurai sempurna menjadi ionionnya yang bergerak bebas.

Ion-ion itulah yang menghantarkan arus listrik. Dalam larutan, senyawa ionik pada umumnya membentuk larutan elektrolit kuat.

Senyawa kovalen adalah senyawa yang atom-atomnya berikatan secara kovalen. Ikatan kovalen terjadi akibat penggunaan bersama-sama pasangan elektron oleh dua atom.

Senyawa kovalen nonpolar timbul karena perbedaan elektronegativitas antaratom yang sangat kecil, bahkan hampir sama.

Sementara itu, senyawa kovalen polar timbul karena perbedaan elektronegativitas yang cukup besar antara dua atom.

Hal tersebut menyebabkan salah satu atom lebih positif dan yang lain lebih negatif. Larutan senyawa kovalen polar mampu menghantarkan arus listrik dengan baik.

Hal tersebut terjadi karena senyawa kovalen polar dalam air akan terdissosiasi menjadi ion-ionnya. Beberapa senyawa kovalen polar tidak terdissosiasi sempurna dalam pelarut air sehingga memiliki kemampuan daya hantar listrik yang.

Hal ini karena dalam pelarut air, hanya sedikit dari zat tersebut yang terdissosiasi membentuk ion. Sebagai contoh larutan elektrolit adalah HCl….

Ion-ion dalam larutan elektrolit bergerak ke arah elektrode yang jenisnya sama dengan muatannya. Zat elektrolit akan terionisasi menjadi ion positif dan negative saat dilarutkan dalam air.

Bilangan oksidasi bisa bernilai positif atau negatif jadi bisa juga dianggap muatan ion. Setiap reaksi redoks terdiri dari setengah reaksi reduksi dan setengah reaksi oksidasi.

Zat yang direduksi disebut oksidator dan zat yang dioksidasi disebut reduktor. Reaksi redoks bisa disetarakan dengan dua cara, yaitu metode setengah reaksi dan metode perubahan bilangan oksidasi.

Contoh : konsep 1 :berdasarkan pengikatan dan pelepasan oksigen. Reaksi redoks melibatkan transfer elektron dari suatu unsur atau senyawa ke unsur atau senyawa lainnya.

Transfer elektron ini dapat terjadi langsung, yakni satu ion menabrak ion lainnya dan selama itu elektron dieruskan dari ke lain ion.

Namun mungkin juga untuk meneruskan elektron-elektron lewat elektroda dan kabel dari satu ke ion lainnya.

Sebuah sel Galvani terdiri dari dua setengah-reaksi, masing — masing terdiri dari sebuah elektroda dan sebuah elektrolit. Kedua elektrolit dihubungkan dengan suatu jembatan garam dan, jika elektroda dihubungkan dengan kawat, elektron akan mengalir menurut arah yang ditunjukkan.

Gerakan elektron dalam kawat menunjukkan bahwa suatu arus listrik sedang mengalir. Senyawa biner tersusun atas dua macam unsur, baik logam dan nonlogam maupun kedua unsur- unsurnya nonlogam, nama logam didahulukan diikuti senyawa nonlogam yang diberi akhiran —ida.

Senyawa biner yang mengandung unsur yang memiliki lebih dari satu bilangan oksidasi maka bilangan oksidasi unsur tersebut ditulis dengan menggunakan angka romawi dalam tanda kurung di belakang nama unsurnya.

Senyawa ionik diberi nama dengan cara menyebutkan nama kation diikuti nama anion. Jika anion terdiri dari beberapa atom dan mengandung unsur yang memiliki lebih dari satu macam bilangan oksidasi, nama anion tersebut diberi imbuhan hipo-it , -it , -at , atau per-at sesuai dengan jumlah bilangan oksidasi.

Konsep reaksi redoks banyak digunakan dalam proses industri. In a study by Hosseinzadeh and Talebzadeh 48 , administration of safranal showed significant protective effects against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures, reduced seizure period and mortality percentage and delayed the onset of tonic convulsions.

Anti-absence effects of safranal To this end, the latency in seizure onset, spike and wave discharges duration and its interaction with GABAergic system were monitored.

It was observed that safranal has no effect on electrocorticographic recording baseline. On the other hand, a significant decrease in spike and wave discharges duration in a dose-dependent manner was observed, except for picrotoxin induced seizure Using pentylenetetrazol PTZ -induced model of seizure it showed that treatment with safranal In order to discuss more mechanistically, authors administered flumazenil 5 nmol, Intracerebroventriculary and naloxone 5.

Flumazenil increased death rates leading to this hypothesis that safranal exerts some of its anticonvulsant effects through GABA A -benzodiazepine receptor complex, but naloxone pretreatment shows that opioid receptors play a minor role in anticonvulsant effects of safranal.

Since monoterpenoids such as terpineol and linalool show depressant effects on CNS in vivo 50 and that linalool competitively inhibits glutamate receptors, it was suggested that safranal may demonstrate its impact on CNS via these mechanisms Authors suggested that safranal attenuates absence seizure via BDZ binding site of GABA A receptor complex Figure 2 , resulting in a recurrent inhibition in thalamic reticular nucleus and lessens its GABA B -mediated inhibitory effect onto the ventrobasal nuclei of the thalamus.

In a model of cerebral ischemia, safranal showed protective effects against oxidative damage,which was shown to be a result of an increase in sulfhydryl content and total antioxidant capacity and a decline in malondialdehyde MDA level in hippocampus.

Safranal was administered at different doses 30 min before, 1 hr or 2 hr after the last dose of morphine. Based on results, safranal had the same effects as naloxone.

Regarding the symptoms observed following safranal administration, the authors proposed that these serotonin-syndrome-like effects may be due to the co-administration of serotonergic antidepressants and opioids.

Death was linked to potentiating morphine withdrawal syndrome and it was concluded that safranal acts as an opioid partial agonist.

A research by Hosseinzadeh and Ziaee 53 revealed that safranal 0. In this study, rats received safranal Regarding the sunscreen and moisturizing properties of saffron, C.

Also moisture content of skin was evaluated at different times following topical administration of saffron.

Skin moisture did not differ significantly after saffron topical administration Hence, it was concluded that safranal could be used as a natural sunscreen even at concentrations lower than of homosalate.

Mounting frequency, intromission frequency, erection frequency, mount latency, intromission latency and ejaculation latency were evaluated following intraperitoneally administration of safranal 0.

It was shown that safranal affects sexual behavior negatively and it was concluded that these effects might be because of safranal ability to inhibit serotonin reuptake, as delayed ejaculation, inability to ejaculate and absent or delayed orgasm is observed following administration of fluoxetine 9.

Another study by Shamsa et al 56 showed that taking saffron tablets each tablet contains mg dried saffron stigma for ten days by twenty patients resulted in a statistically significant improvement in tip rigidity and tip tumescence as well as base rigidity and base tumescence.

Authors proposed that this effect could be due to crocin and safranal antioxidant and radical scavenging properties and could be linked to their protective effect on ischemia-reperfusion injuries as it was observed in hind limb and kidney of rats.

Safranal effects on respiratory tracts could be summarized as antitussive effects and H 1 antagonism, which are shown in Table 5.

Safranal 0. Safranal significantly reduced the coughs count as compared to saline treated group 7. Safranal 1.

The effect of safranal 0. Safranal resulted in rightward shifting in histamine—response curves, significant increase in maximum responses to histamine and greater EC It was concluded that safranal possibly acts as a histamine H 1 receptors competitive antagonist To evaluate the possible protective effects of safranal against diazinon, safranal 0.

When co-administerd with diazinon, safranal 0. With the same protocol of safranal administration, Hariri et al 62 , observed that safranal 0.

At all doses safranal had no effects on diazinon impact on RBC cholinesterase activity. In the micronucleus assay, safranal could not reverse the genotoxicity of diazinon.

Authors postulated that protective properties of safranal could be attributed to its radical scavenging effects on RBC count and hemoglobin concentration and also on bone marrow in production of platelets.

Boroushaki and Sadeghnia 63 investigated the effect of safranal on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. On day 7, cardiac blood samples were collected and nephrotoxicity markers were evaluated.

While blood urea nitrogen and creatinine and urinary glucose and protein concentration were significantly higher in gentamicin only treated group in comparison with saline treated, difference between saline treated and safranal plus gentamicin treated groups was not statistically significant.

Authors declared that although the exact mechanism could not be described but this effect might be due to safranal antioxidant properties.

Boroushaki et al 64 used hexachlorobutadiene HCBD to cause nephrotoxicity in rats and evaluated the protective effects of safranal using kidneys for histological and MDA analysis and blood urine samples for assessment of urea, creatinine, glucose and protein concentrations.

Blood creatinine levels were not statistically different among groups but blood urea was significantly lower in safranal treated groups 0.

Also, safranal 0. Light microscopic examination of kidneys' sections showed a massive damage in straight portion of proximal tubules in groups 2 and 5.

Since no changes were observed in MDA results among different groups, it was concluded that HCBD nephrotoxicity could not be a result of oxidative stress.

Hence, safranal antioxidant properties do not play an important role here. Kianbakht and Hajiaghaee 65 evaluated six weeks administration of safranal 0.

Finally, while it was shown that safranal reduces fasting blood glucose and HbA1c levels and improves the blood insulin levels significantly, there were no significant changes in the blood SGOT, SGPT and creatinine levels.

Imenshahidi et al 11 evaluated the effects of intravenously administered safranal 0. Safaranal at all doses decreased mean arterial blood pressure MABP significantly in hypertensive rats and at two higher doses in normotensive rats.

Heart rate was also reduced at all doses but not statistically significant. Since saffron stigma aqueous extract and crocin were evaluated along with safranal and based on the results, it was proposed that safranal is more important than crocin in hypotensive properties of saffron.

Authors mentioned that the immediate reduction in blood pressure suggests that both heart function and blood vessels contractility is affected by safranal.

Based on the study of Boskabady and Aslani 66 in which a potent relaxant effect of safranal on smooth muscles of guinea pigs was shown and also because of interaction of safranal with GABA A -benzodiazepine receptor complex 48 and the observations that benzodiazepines, in pre-anesthetic doses, decrease blood pressure via decreasing peripheral resistance or cardiac output 67 hypotensive effect of safranal could be due to its interaction with GABA A -benzodiazepine receptor.

Desoxycorticosterone acetate treatment causes an endothelial dysfunction both in the isolated aortic rings and perfused mesenteric bed 68 since safranal effects on normotensive and hypertensive rats were almost the same, it was concluded that its action is not endothelium dependent.

On day 15, 45 min of ischemia was induced by one-stage ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery and afterward, reperfusion was carried out for 60 min.

According to results, safranal reduced infarct size, enhanced left ventricular functions and myocardium hemodynamic status, generally.

Since safranal resulted in Bcl-2 expression upregulation and Bax and caspase3 expression downregulation, it could act as a strong antiapoptotic chemical.

In a model of ischemia-reperfusion injury, safranal 0. In another study, hind limb ischemia was induced by clamping the common femoral artery and vein and was maintained for 2 hr.

Following this period, rats experienced reperfusion for 1 hr. Safranal reduced MDA levels, increased the average peak-to-peak amplitudes of electromyographic EMG potentials and improved total sulfhydryl groups and antioxidant capacity of muscle assessed by FRAP assay significantly.

Authors declared that safranal antioxidant effects could be attributed to its ability in quenching free radicals It has been shown that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of C.

Weak to moderate anti inflammatory effects were observed using stigma extracts. Also, aqueous and ethanolic stigma extracts and ethanolic petal extract were found to be effective against chronic inflammation According to Nasri et al safranal exhibits anti-nociceptive effects in acute phase of formalin assay but has no effects on inflammation as assessed by Mercury immersion method Amin and Hosseinzadeh 74 evaluated the effects of systemic administration of safranal 0.

According to results, safranal attenuates the neuropathic pain behavioral symptoms, dose-dependently. It was assumed that modulation of BDZ sites on GABA A receptors, decrease in aspartate and glutamate in hippocampus extracellular space which have been shown to be involved in the generation of neuropathic pain and antioxidant capacity of safranal may play an important role.

Regarding antinociceptive effects of safranal, Hosseinzadeh and Shariaty 75 designed a study using hot-plate, writhing and formalin tests.

Administration of safranal 0. Only 30 min after safranal 0. In formalin test, pain-related behaviors were decreased in phase I by safranal 0.

Naloxone did not abolish the anti-nociceptive effects of safranal completely. It was concluded that safranal antinociceptive effects could be more due to its impact on prostaglandin synthesis or actions rather than opioid receptors.

Based on formalin tests result, safranal has a greater impact on inflammatory and peripheral phase. By means of deoxyribose, erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation and liver microsomal non-enzymatic lipid peroxide tion methods, the antioxidant activity of safranal 0.

Safranal showed hydroxyl radical scavenging activity dose-dependently in deoxyribose assay and decreased MDA generation in RBC, lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2 and liver microsomal non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation 5.

The interaction between calf-thymus DNA and safranal 0. Higher levels of DNA vibrations at higher safranal concentrations were described to be related to helix destabilization.

Despite the low calculated K values, following safranal treatment remarkable changes in DNA was observed According to CD recordings, picrocrocin-ctDNA interaction takes place at lower concentrations than those of safranal.

Genoprotective effects of pretreatment with C. Hosseinzadeh and Sadeghnia 80 studied the genotoxic effects of safranal using single-cell gel electrophoresis SCGE , comet assay.

Male rats received safranal At all doses and in all organs cells, safranal pre-treatment resulted in a significant protection against MMS-induced DNA damage.

It is worth mentioning that even at relatively high doses of safranal no adverse effect was recorded. According to Hosseinzadeh et al 81 , subacute 21 days and acute 2 days toxicity of safranal were assessed using rat and mouse models.

LD50 of safranal were calculated as follows:. Also, subacute toxicity of safranal were evaluated following once-daily administration of safranal 0.

Also, asthenia, anorexia, decrease in food and water consumption and weight loss were observed. These effects were more pronounced at higher doses.

Based on our results, there were a significant reduction in body weights, RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets at all doses.

Safranal reduced total cholesterol, triglyceride at all doses and alkalin phosphatase ALP at two higher doses.

Regarding pathological assessment of heart, liver and spleen, no abnormalities were observed, but histological evaluations showed abnormalities and toxic effects of safranal, especially at the dose of 0.

In kidneys edema and cytolysis were recorded and in lungs progressed emphysema and lymphocyte infiltration were observed As for the genotoxicity, Hariri et al 62 showed that IP administration of safranal 0.

Investigating cytotoxic and antimicrobial effects of safranal 0. Eventually it was concluded that safranal shows great dose-dependent anti-tumor and toxic effects of Further investigations showed that safranal could be introduced as the chemical which plays the main role in this trend but no more explanations were provided.

Escribano et al studied the cytotoxic effects of saffron ethanolic extract, crocin, safranal and picrocrocin at the concentration of LD 50 2.

Finally, it was concluded that crocin may have a more profound value as an anticancer agent in comparison with other main saffron chemicals According to different studies, safranal as the main chemical responsible for C.

To the best of our knowledge, missing areas of interest which have not been fully completed are clinical trials and toxicological studies, which need further attention.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Iran J Basic Med Sci. Find articles by Ramin Rezaee. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Received Aug 5; Accepted Oct 6. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Safranal, the main component of Crocus sativus essential oil, is thought to be the main cause of saffron unique odor.

Introduction C. History Beside its exclusive color, saffron presents a particular taste which is originates from its picrocrocin content.

Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Table 3 Conventional methods for extracting volatile compounds.

Table 1 Safranal physicochemical properties Molecular weight d 4 19 bp 1. Table 2 Plants from which safranal has been extracted.

Plant Part Crocus sativus 23 entire plant Centaurea sibthorpii 24 aerial parts Centaurea amanicola 25 aerial parts Centaurea consanguinea 25 aerial parts Erodium cicutarium 26 entire plant Chinese green tea 27 green tea trade marks Calycopteris floribunda 28 leaves Crocus heuffelianus 29 shoot primordia Sambucus nigra 30 flowers Lemon Citrus limon 31 fruits Achillea distans 32 root.

Figure 2. Table 4 Summery of the effects of safranal on central nervous system. Full protection at higher doses against GTCS and death.

Significant decrease in protective results against GTCS onset and rate when co-administered with flumazenil but not with naloxone.

Increase in convulsion onset. Memory 53 0. Binding to benzodiazepines subtypes with no effect on muscle relaxation. Cerebral Ischemia 52 Table 5 Summary of the effects of safranal on respiratory tract.

Effect reference Safranal dose Results Proposed mechanism Relaxant effect 58 0. Table 6 Safranal LD 50 values. Root of administration Male mice Female mice Male rats Intraperitoneal 1.

Conclusions According to different studies, safranal as the main chemical responsible for C. References 1. Zargari A.

Medicinal Plants. Tehran: Tehran University Press; Hosseinzadeh H, Khosravan V. Anticonvulsant effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of crocus sativus l.

Stigmas in mice. Arch Irn Med. Antidepressant effects of Crocus sativus stigma extracts and its constituents, crocin and safranal, in mice.

Acta Hortic. Hosseinzadeh H, Younesi HM. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Crocus sativus L stigma and petal extracts in mice.

BMC Pharmacol. Antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Crocus sativus L stigma and its bioactive constituent, crocin and safranal.

Pharmacogn Mag. Saffron as a source of novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitors: molecular docking and in vitro enzymatic studies. J Agric Food Chem.

Hosseinzadeh H, Ghenaati J. Evaluation of the antitussive effect of stigma and petals of saffron Crocus sativus and its components, safranal and crocin in guinea pigs.

Hosseinzadeh H, Jahanian Z. Effect of Crocus sativus L saffron stigma and its constituents, crocin and safranal, on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice.

Phytother Res. The effect of saffron, Crocus sativus stigma, extract and its constituents, safranal and crocin on sexual behaviors in normal male rats.

Effects of saffron Crocus sativus L and its active constituent, crocin, on recognition and spatial memory after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats.

Hypotensive effect of aqueous saffron extract Crocus sativus L and its constituents, safranal and crocin, in normotensive and hypertensive rats.

Does saffron have antisolar and moisturizing effects? Iran J Pharm Res. New applications and mechanisms of action of saffron and its important ingredients.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. Chemical and biological properties of the world's most expensive spice: Saffron. Food Res Int. Giaccio M. Crocetin from saffron: an active component of an ancient spice.

INC; Determination of safranal from saffron Crocus sativus L by thermal desorption-gas chromatography. Tarantilis PA, Polissiou M. The volatile constituents of saffron.

Lebenson Wisenschaft Technol. Himeno H, Sano K. Synthesis of crocin, picrocrocina and safranal by saffron stigma-like structures proliferated in vitro.

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